What to do with diarrhea in a child?
You can safely say that, without exception, parents will sooner or later have to face such a problem as a child's diarrhea.In what cases should you treat this symptom to your doctor, and when can you help the child and at home?Table of contents:
Causes of diarrhea in children
First of all, parents need to understand that diarrhea is a protective reaction of the body. It is necessary to fight not with a symptom, but directly with the root cause.There are a lot of reasons - from the most routine to life-threatening, which can lead to the appearance of diarrhea.
Diarrhea can be observed in such pathological conditions:
- Errors in nutrition;
- Lactose intolerance, gluten;
- Intestinal infections;
- Food poisoning;
- Irritable bowel syndrome;
- Diseases of the digestive tract( pancreatitis, NNC, Crohn's disease);
- Cystic fibrosis intestinal form;
- Surgical pathology of the abdominal cavity( diverticulosis, appendicitis).
The features of diarrhea treatment will depend directly on the cause that led to the appearance of the symptom.
Treatment of diarrhea in children
Diarrhea diarrhea in children
When can diarrhea be controlled alone?Often with diarrhea in children, parents encounter when introducing complementary foods.This is such a special reaction of the baby to a particular product.In this case, it will be enough to not give this product to the child and the chair will soon be normalized.
In lactase deficiency, children develop meteorism and frequent watery foamy diarrhea after consuming dairy products containing lactose.In this case, the child must comply with a lactose-free diet.Diarrhea worries children and with intolerance to gluten( celiac disease).To normalize the stool, it will be sufficient to adhere to the agglutinous diet.Diarrhea can in principle arise in any child with errors in nutrition: the use of fatty, difficult to digest food.
So, in what cases can parents deal with the problem on their own?
If diarrhea occurs in the child after any errors in the diet, while:
- general health is not disturbed;
- body temperature is normal;
- in feces no impurities of blood;
- has no signs of dehydration.
Separately it is worth mentioning the poisoning with mushrooms .Physicians always emphasize the parents' attention to the fact that mushrooms can not be given to children at all.And nevertheless, some parents are still presumptuous and believe that nothing will happen to the child from using this product.If the child's diarrhea has arisen after eating mushrooms, it is necessary to call an ambulance, because fungal poisoning can result in a bad outcome.
We repair fluid loss
The functioning of a child's organism has its own characteristics and diarrhea for a child is more dangerous than for an adult.This is especially true for young children.Abundant diarrhea leads to the removal of fluid and electrolytes from the body.In babies, dehydration on the background of diarrhea occurs in just a few hours.Critical dehydration leads to death.Therefore, when there is an abundance of diarrhea should immediately begin treatment activities.
If a child loses fluid, then it must be replenished.But since electrolytes are also removed with water, care should be taken also about their intake into the body.To restore the water-electrolyte balance, medicines for rehydration are used. For mild to moderate degrees of fluid loss, oral rehydration agents such as Regidron, Glucosan, Oralite and are used.In every house where a young child lives, ideally there should be such means.He is worth a penny, but at the same time able to maintain the health and life of the child.
Oral rehydration products are available in powder form in bags.Packaging is opened and poured into a liter of boiled water, mix the liquid well.Give the medicine should be after the first cases of diarrhea.Children under two years old are given a solution for rehydration on a teaspoonful every few minutes.Older children can drink themselves from the mug in small sips.After each liquid stool, a baby up to two years old should drink 50-100 ml of the solution.Children over the age of two must drink 100-200 ml of the solution.
Parents should definitely call an ambulance if the condition of the child has not improved during the day despite ongoing rehydration therapy and the following symptoms have appeared:
- Body temperature increased over 38 degrees;
- There was vomiting;
- There were admixtures of blood in the feces;
- The child refuses to drink;
- There were signs of dehydration( dryness of the mucous membranes, absence of tears, sweat, urine, eyelid twitching, fallen fontanelle, prolonged skin folding - from two seconds, drowsiness and lethargy).
In this case, before the ambulance arrives, you must continue to water the baby with the prepared solution.And already in a hospital, rehydration will be carried out by intravenous administration of solutions.
It should be noted that copious diarrhea in combination with fever, vomiting signals an acute intestinal infection.
Treatment of intestinal infections in children
It is not difficult for a child to get an intestinal infection, especially if he visits a children's team. Intestinal infections cause both bacteria and viruses.In this case diarrhea is treated not only with rehydration solutions, but also with enterosorbents.These are substances that act directly in the intestines, like a sponge they absorb microbes, their toxins, gases and are taken out of the body.The representatives of enterosorbents are Smecta, Enterosgel, Activated Carbon, Polysorb.Most enterosorbents can be used in small children.
One of the most popular enterosorbents is Smecta. This drug is available in powder form in bags.In acute diarrhea, the baby is prescribed two sachets for the first three days, and then one sachet for up to a year.The contents of one sachet are dissolved in a baby bottle( 50 ml) and dispensed into several doses throughout the day.Children over one-year-old age are prescribed four sachets in the first days of treatment, and then two packages.The contents of the sachet dissolve in half a glass of water and drink at a time in small sips.The duration of treatment with Smecta is three to seven days.
Please note! Some parents with diarrhea in a child give immediately antibacterial drugs by the type of phthalozole.Such a decision is wrong.First of all, children often have diarrhea caused by viruses( rotavirus infection), and not bacteria, so antibacterial drugs will be ineffective.According to modern medical concepts, even with bacterial intestinal infections of mild to moderate severity, antibiotics are not needed, it is sufficient to provide full-fledged rehydration therapy.Thus, antibacterial drugs are prescribed only in the presence of severe intestinal infections and concomitant complications.
How to restore intestinal microflora with diarrhea
Chronic diarrhea in a child can be a sign of a dysbiosis.This condition is characterized by a disturbance of the normal intestinal microflora.Dysbacteriosis often occurs after the passed course of antibiotic therapy.Probiotics are also prescribed in the complex treatment of intestinal infections, but they are not used in the first days of the disease.Recommended to read:
Preparations that can restore a healthy balance of the intestinal microflora are called probiotics .Representatives of this group are Lineks, Bifiform, Hilak Forte, Bifidumbacterin.One of the most popular probiotics is Linex.Children up to two years of age, the drug is prescribed one capsule three times a day.If the baby can not swallow the whole medicine, the capsule is opened and its contents are stirred in a teaspoon with liquid.Children aged two to twelve are prescribed one to two capsules three times a day.
Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer