Schizophrenia - types, forms and clinical manifestations
Schizophrenia is the most common, most studied, but also the most incomprehensible disease from the category of "mental disorders".Several types and forms of this pathology have been identified by medicine, but the disease does not have a single clinical picture, which means that there will be no unambiguous symptoms in patients.And schizophrenia is distinguished by the absence of a specific prognosis - in some cases it is enough for a patient to receive one course of therapy with powerful medications and continue supporting the body at home, the other will have to spend his entire life in specialized medical institutions.
In general, it is historically accepted to classify four types of schizophrenia, but just a few years ago the International Health Organization introduced some changes into the classification of the mental disorder in question - two more types of schizophrenia were added.Table of contents: Recommended reading:
Basic types of schizophrenia
Psychiatrists can identify 4 main types of mental disorder in question that are characterized by more or less clear clinical manifestations.
Schizophrenia of the paranoid species
This type of disease is characterized by delirium and hallucinations - from the specific deviation observed in the clinical picture and the differentiation of subspecies of paranoid schizophrenia.
Symptoms of schizophrenia of the paranoid species
For delusional paranoid schizophrenia, false conclusions are typical that are not amenable to any logic and are perceived by the patient as genius thoughts.For example, many schizophrenics with a diagnosed paranoid type of mental disorder choose words that are similar in meaning / pronunciation / interpretation.A striking example is that the patients have the "firewood-grass-lawn" association and are sure that the wood and lawn have the same semantic load.The result is the appearance in the conversation of the phrase "I'll go laughed lawn" - for a mentally healthy person it is delirium, for a schizophrenic - a completely normal, understandable and logical phrase.
In addition, delusions in schizophrenia of the paranoid species are of a narrowly focused nature - often doctors distinguish delirium of jealousy, delirium of grandeur, delusions of invention.Depending on what type of delusions in paranoid schizophrenia will be present in a patient, his behavior will also depend, but more often than not a person becomes socially not adapted over time, he can not fulfill social and family responsibilities.
The hallucinatory schizophrenia of the paranoid species is distinguished by the presence of auditory, visual and tactile hallucinations in the patient.But it is for this mental disorder that auditory hallucinations are more characteristic - the patient constantly hears or with an enviable regularity hears voices that can order him or speak condemnatory, accusatory.Some patients of psychiatrists assure that these voices are in the head, for many, the voice comes from outside - "someone speaks straight in the ear."
This type of considered mental disorder is characterized by impaired motor activity with an absolutely clear consciousness.
Symptoms of catatonic schizophrenia
The clinical picture of catatonic schizophrenia is manifested by sudden immobility, muscle spasm( the patient "freezes" in an unnatural position) and lack of speech.Catatonic schizophrenia can also be manifested by intense excitement, moreover, it is always spontaneous - the patient can suddenly scream, somewhere to run without a definite purpose, to manifest aggression towards others or towards oneself.
Catatonic schizophrenia in the stage of excitation or stupor is never accompanied by delirium or hallucinations.The patient even responds to the speech addressed to him even in an attack, realizes what is happening, when his condition stabilizes, he remembers well what was happening around.That is, the patient's consciousness remains unchanged, but he can not control his actions / movements.
Schizophrenia of the described species is recognized by physicians as the most unfavorable in terms of further predictions.The onset of development falls on adolescence, and disorders occur in the emotional-volitional sphere.The patient with a diagnosis of hephaeopenic schizophrenia behaves inadequately, he has a constantly cheerful mood, his behavior becomes foolish, such concepts as attachment and feelings are unfamiliar to him.Over time, the negative side of the disease begins to manifest itself and a person becomes antisocial, loses his ability to work and just communicate meaningfully with others.
Residual schizophrenia is considered a "residual" manifestation of psychosis and is expressed by a strong violation of speech, dulling( and sometimes completely absent) of emotions, inhibition in psychomotor activity.
Additional types of schizophrenia
Despite the fact that this mental disorder is known to science long ago, it is often impossible to clearly define its main types.Therefore, several additional types of schizophrenia have been identified, they are also called intermediate.
Such a diagnosis is made for those patients who have symptoms of a mental disorder, but they are not intensive.Most often, non-differential schizophrenia is a sign that the specialist was unable to observe the patient for a long time.Nevertheless, this does not mean a controversial statement of the diagnosis - the mental disorder in question is definitely there, but it is impossible to single out its specific form.
This is a condition that is inherent in patients with diagnosed schizophrenia after a psychotic attack.In some cases with post-schizophrenic depression, there are residual signs of psychosis, but in a non-intensive form.
In a patient, the symptoms of this mental disorder develop gradually and there are no psychotic seizures.That is, he is inherently closed, autistic features, but catatonia, aggressiveness, delusions or hallucinations are not noted.This does not mean that the predictions for the course of the disease will be favorable - the patient still becomes antisocial, just the dynamics will be slowed down.
Classification of schizophrenia by type of
Even if a specific type of mental disorder has been identified after examination, examination and long follow-up, this does not mean that the diagnosis is complete. Doctors distinguish and distinguish schizophrenia according to the type of current:
- Periodic schizophrenia.It is also called recurrent or differentiated as schizoaffective disorder.Characteristic for this type of acute "flashes" of delirium and hallucinations.Moreover, these two manifestations of schizophrenia in patients with periodic schizophrenia are always emotionally colored.
Doctors say that the stronger the patient expresses emotions during delusions of delusions or hallucinations, the more favorable the prognosis of the disease is, these conditions can be removed with a specific medication for a mental disorder, and the next attack can happen a few months, years or moreDo not show up.
- Shuboobraznaya schizophrenia.By doctors it is classified as paroxysmal with a growing defect - this means that after the treatment procedures there are residual effects of the attack( this may be delusions or short-term hallucinations).Such seizures are diagnosed very often and if at the beginning of the development of the considered mental disorder the patient realizes that he speaks delusions or is tormented by hallucinations, then with each new attack he begins to believe in his genius and even frank delirium is considered smart and correct / logical thoughts.
The name of this type of schizophrenia comes from the German word "shub" - in the translation "attack".Some people think that shuboobraznaya schizophrenia is diagnosed only in those patients who constantly go to fur coats, although such a manifestation of a mental disorder is not ruled out.
- Malignant schizophrenia.She is constantly flowing, the patient is absolutely not adapted to life in society, constantly displays aggression towards both others and in relation to herself, he is not able to lead even the simplest labor activity and even independently serve himself.
Patients with diagnosed malignant schizophrenia of any kind are in hospitals, special medical institutions.There is no question of any maintenance therapy at home - these patients pose a danger to others.
Distinguish also sluggish schizophrenia - some symptoms of this mental disorder in humans are present, but in a rather latent form, unobtrusive and not dangerous to others.Most often, such patients for a long time do not fall into the field of view of doctors, their strange behavior surrounding them is written off to the well-known saying "every person has his own cockroaches in his head."And by the way, according to statistics, sluggish schizophrenia always turns into a more severe and severe form of the disease - sooner or later, it's not so important.
It is important for the : to determine for itself whether a person has schizophrenia and what kind / type is impossible - this should be handled by a specialist.Moreover, many symptoms of schizophrenia are identical to other diseases of this category - they can also be differentiated only by a doctor.Moreover, it is impossible to make an unambiguous diagnosis after the initial examination of the patient - it can only be assumed.Schizophrenia can only be confirmed after prolonged observation of the patient.
If we talk about the treatment of schizophrenia of different types and types, then everything is strictly individual.Some patients are shown a permanent stay in a medical institution, many are treated with home therapy with regular monitoring by medical workers.Categorically it is not recommended to use folk methods of treatment and leave the patient with a diagnosis of schizophrenia without a periodic examination by a doctor - even a sluggish mental disorder has its dynamics of development, which does not always end favorably.Precise predictions can not be given by any doctor - schizophrenia is still controversial, paradoxical and poorly understood mental illness.
A detailed description of the different types of schizophrenia, the causes and symptoms of schizophrenia is presented in the video review:
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.