Butyratomania: the effect on the butyrate, the effects of use and treatment of dependence
Butyratomania is a type of drug dependence on the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid( GHB), which is known under other terms - Sodium oxybate, Sodium oxybutyrate( Natrium oxybutyricum), Liquid ecstasy, RenewTrient, etc. This substance is used in practicalMedicine.
This drug is not devoid of narcotic effects, it has become widespread among drug addicts, with a lot of slang names: Butyrate, Ksyusha, Buratino, Oxik, etc.Especially popular sodium oxybutyrate has acquired its effects and cheapness in the youth, club environment.Contents: History of the discovery and the main types of action GHB In which cases GHB in medicine is applied The mechanism of narcotic effect How does its drug effect GHB in humans The formation of butyratomania and the destruction of the body Treatment of butiratomania
The history of discovery and the main types of action GHBK
AZaitsev, a chemist from Russia in 1874, first isolated this chemical compound.For years, no one was interested in this discovery, until the French doctor A. Labbory discovered a number of important properties of this compound.The therapeutic effects of the new medication have been used in the practice of treating mental illnesses, alcoholism.
GHB improves blood microcirculation, enhances the ability of the heart muscle to contract, stabilizes glomerular filtration in the kidneys.
In certain doses, GHB led to anabolic results, caused active muscle growth, which could not ignore the people involved in bodybuilding. This action was used by manufacturers of food additives.
Note: Butyrate is far from harmless, causing drug addiction and other kinds of problems, which led to its restriction and prohibition.
It is worth noting that physicians in many countries have not used this substance in their medical practice.
In which cases GHB is used in medicine
In the United States, Canada, some European countries, butyrate is used to eliminate daytime drowsiness( narcolepsy), cataleptic seizures of .Attempts were made to use fibromyalgia( muscle pains).
Scientific experiments and practical observations on the use of GHB in cases of Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue problems, certain types of schizophrenia, cluster headaches, psychogenic cases of excessive eating are conducted.In some countries, alcohol abstinence is treated with oxybutyrate.
In our country, GHB is used as an anesthetic preparation with preservation of the respiratory reflex in small surgery, as a measure of preparation of the patient for deeper anesthesia( anesthesia) .Often it is resorted to by gynecologists.A drug is useful in cases of need of anesthesia with problems of hypoxia in patients.Doctors ophthalmologists with the goal of stimulating the metabolic processes of the retina give oxybutyrate in open-angle glaucoma.
Mechanism of narcotic action
The narcotic effect of GHB is developed as a result of a competitive effect on GABAergic neurons of the nervous system by replacing gamma-aminobutyric acid with Butyrate.In addition, the effect on opioid receptors was noted. It is these influences that lead to the development of euphoria, mood elevation, and all the main symptomatic manifestations of drug intoxication, or poisoning. The final stage of GHB catabolism leads to its disintegration into water and carbon monoxide.
Regular intake reduces the threshold of the body's sensitivity to this substance, which causes the addict to increase the dose.
How does its drug effect GHB in humans
Despite restrictive measures and the lack of sales of Oxibutyrate in pharmacies, it can be purchased from illegal distributors.
GHB is taken either ingestionally or by injection.
After getting into the body, this narcotic substance manifests itself in 15 minutes.The average duration of action is 1-2 hours. The intravenous drug has its effects for 4-5 hours.At the alimentary form of reception Butirat it is late in an organism up to days.
The length of his stay depends on the food intake, the physical and mental shape of the patient.
The dependence is formed very quickly, often an overdose of occurs. Treatment doses are on average 0.5 g per day.The narcotic effect develops upon ingestion of 1-3 g of Butyrate.
Addicts often measure doses of caps from beer bottles, etc.
The light degree of the action develops from small amounts of GHB( 0.5 - 1.5 g).The condition resembles a slight alcoholic intoxication, which happens from 50-100 g of vodka.
In this case, the patients are noted:
- pleasant state of complete relaxation;
- great mood with self-satisfaction;
- desire to communicate with people;
- motor activity.
Medium degree ( 1,5-2,5 g)
- increasing euphoria and relaxation;
- fuzziness of speech, mental inconsistency;
- desire to listen to music, craving for dancing;
- excessive looseness and inadequate actions;
- mild sexual excitability;
- periodic attacks of nausea.
Heavy grade ( from 2.5 g and higher).With this dose, the body stops coping and toxic retardation occurs.
- change of hyperactivity by severe inhibition of the nervous system;
- severe drowsiness;
- memory corruption;
- inadequate behavior and speech;
- sphincter disorders( involuntary discharge of urine and feces).
In this phase addicts commit insane acts - jumping from a high altitude, drowning, etc.In the final, a heavy sleep develops, during which the patient often begins vomiting.At this moment there is a danger of suffocation, from getting into the respiratory tract of vomit.
Important: In case of an overdose, a stuporous condition appears in the patient, followed by a complete loss of consciousness.The patient falls into a coma, and without assistance, dies.
Upon awakening, butirate users experience a mental inhibition, can not concentrate, their attention is distracted. In the environment of drug addicts it is believed that physical dependence does not develop with butiratomania.It is this moment, in the opinion of many drug addicts, that GHB refers to safe substances.But, as practice shows, this is not entirely true.
Generation of butyrate manganese and destruction of the body
If a person has used GHB regularly for several months, forms the psychic dependence .
The withdrawal symptoms are mild and last from three days to one and a half to two weeks.It manifests itself in the development of delusional ideas and utterances, the disorder of the process of thinking, sleep problems, anxiety, headache and dizziness, unpleasant sensations in the heart.
Initial effects quickly reduce the patient's quantitative control, he again takes increasing doses of butirate . Regular intake of drugs quickly causes degradation. Behavior in the first place is aggressiveness, inadequate behavior and stupid acts( for example, a naked look on the street).The number of memory failures increases in patients.The patient is often mistaken with the dosage, which leads to severe consequences and death.
The painful process is aggravated by the simultaneous administration of oxybutyrate with alcohol, which has the potentiating effect of .This type of drug addiction often affects other people.For example, pedestrians shot down by a car driver in a state of butir intoxication.
Combinations of GHB with stimulants are especially dangerous.
The use of narcotic doses of GHBK very quickly and strongly destroys a person's personality, his psyche.Among the addicts themselves, the term "vegetable" is used to denote the essence of the state.In the brain there are severe and irreversible processes of destruction.This substance can be called the most "crazy" of all drugs.
The important organs of the patient are also destroyed.The brain, heart, liver, reproductive system suffers.
Treatment of Butyratomania
In the presence of dependence on butirate, active and prolonged assistance in specialized narcological hospitals is required, with the complete cancellation of Butyrate.
In case of overdose, patients may stay in the toxicological and resuscitation departments of regular hospitals.
Before the hospitalization of the patient, people around the drug addict can themselves provide first aid.
For this it is necessary:
- to wash the stomach with water, with a low content of soda, manganese potassium;
- inside to give the patient several tablets of activated charcoal;
- if necessary - put a cleansing enema.
In hospital conditions, :
- is actively used by patients with butiratomania. Active disintegration therapy
- pharmacotherapy for mental abnormalities .Individual selection of drugs and doses allows you to remove severe forms of mental abnormalities( tranquilizers and antidepressants).In the development of psychosis with delusions and hallucinations, doctors prescribe antipsychotics;
- restoration of the viability of all organs .Therapy with vitamins, nootropics, hepatoprotectors and metabolic means quickly restores the impaired functions of the affected organs.
- active psychotherapy .As soon as a conscious and critical attitude returns to the patient, active psychotherapeutic methods are added to the treatment process.The specialist in the restoration of mental functions conducts a two-stage motivation for the patient.At the first stage, the therapist convinces the addict that he is addicted( by no means all consider themselves to be sick).On the second - the doctor gives an active setting for healing. Without striving for the goals of a future sober life of success, there will be no treatment. Simultaneously, in individual sessions, positive settings are fixed by methods of suggestion.Group types of psychotherapy pursue the goal - to convince the convalescents of the need for a normal lifestyle.
- The final step of the treatment is the encoding of .When butiratomanii the most effective is the method stress therapy for Dovzhenko .The doctor chooses the most appropriate modification of this method.If the patient agrees on the appointed day, the patient is coded for a certain period, during which he can undergo a complete healing process.
The most optimal recovery point is the recovery center.In his conditions, during a few months, social rehabilitation of a recovering person is carried out.
The implementation of all basic therapies is a good predictor of healthy life.
The prognosis for early treatment and the patient's desire to recover is fairly optimistic.
Alexander Lotin, medical reviewer