Thrush in the mouth: causes and treatment
Thrush( monoliasis) is a fungal disease( candidiasis), leading to the defeat of the mucous membranes of the mouth, pharynx, tongue, gums.The disease was named because of external manifestations in the form of a whitish rash, which merges, becomes like a spot of milk.
The most affected category of patients is the newborn( children under one month old).Particularly affected are babies born prematurely, as well as infants, weakened by congenital and acquired diseases, sharply reducing the defenses of the body.
Thrush can develop in adults, especially the elderly.Infectious this disease is called only conditionally, because the pathogens - fungi - are normally present on the skin, mucous membranes, in the intestines, genital organs in almost all.Their pathogenic properties, these microorganisms can manifest only in weakened patients.The cases of transfer of thrush through toilet items( towels, toothbrushes, etc.) are described.
Note: developing candidiasis gives the patient a lot of uncomfortable manifestations and therefore requires treatment.
Why thrush develops in the mouth
Among the reasons for the propagation of common fungi Candida( krusei , tropicalis, guilliermondi, albicans , pseudotropicalis) it should be noted:
- any morbid conditions, infectious diseases, provoking immunodeficiency;
- endocrine diseases, especially diabetes, thyroid pathology;
- metabolic and hormonal disorders in pregnancy;
- taking certain medications( most often antibiotics), especially in the case of prolonged treatment with large doses, without the supervision of a doctor;
- diseases of the stomach and intestines, leading to dysbiosis;
- lack of intake, assimilation and metabolism of vitamins, especially - C and group B;
- long reception of large doses of alcohol, long-term smoking, drugs;
- traumatic damage to the oral mucosa and gums with dentures;
- effects of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer patients;
Fungi located on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes of the mouth, as a result of the inhibition of immune factors, are able to penetrate into the cells.In the new environment, they begin active growth and reproduction.The fungal products of vital activity and enzymes lead to the destruction of cells.At the site of the development of the process, all the signs of inflammation with redness, swelling of the tissues, pain, itching, local increase in temperature.
In the midst of the manifestations, white plaque appears on the affected areas, resembling by its appearance milk-curd mass, which consists of dead cells of the skin and mucous membrane, fibrinous elements, dead bacteria.
Scurf at the beginning of the disease is represented by milky points, which gradually increase in quantity, size, then merge and form plaque-like films, eventually merging into one.The films cover the inner surface of the cheeks, cover the tongue, and grasp the gums.If the process goes on, the thrush manifests itself on the palate, tonsils and passes lower into the respiratory tract.Sometimes there are generalized forms that spread throughout the body.
Symptoms of thrush in the mouth
The disease can develop for several hours, sometimes days and even weeks.
Patient is concerned:
- discomfort in the mouth, dryness, itching;
- appearance on the mucosa of white and yellowish spots, which gradually merge and become a continuous plaque;
- is red, inflamed mucous under the coating, which can become ulcerated and bleed;
- itching, supplemented by burning;Painful sensations grow, taste changes change, there is a taste with a "metallic" hue;
- Swallowing disorders and a feeling of coma in the throat - arise when the candidiasis passes to the mucous pharyngeal region;
- for a large area of the affected surface - increased body temperature;
- skin in the corners of the mouth, covered with cracks;There is an unpleasant smell from the mouth;
- soreness when taking acidic, salty, spicy food.
Diagnosis and diagnosis
The diagnosis of "thrush of the oral cavity", treatment and prevention of this disease deals with a dentist, sometimes - an infectionist or dermatologist.
Disease is determined based on:
- characteristic patient complaints;
- examination of the oral cavity, with the detection of appropriate changes( plaque, inflammatory changes);
- scraping of the film and mucous membrane from the affected areas, for the subsequent determination of the type of pathogen and its sensitivity to medical preparations;
- a clinical blood test with basic indicators - hemoglobin, erythrocytes, extended leukocyte formula.
After confirming the presence of a fungus pathogen, the physician prescribes the necessary therapy.
Important: should not do self-medication of thrush.An unprofessional approach can be useless, or will cause frank harm to the patient.
Features of thrush in the mouth in women
Clinical manifestations in men and women occur almost without distinction.It should be noted that women are more vulnerable to the disease, especially during puberty, pregnancy, menopausal changes.Against the background of these processes in the body there are significant hormonal changes that often lead to immune problems.Therefore, the available fungal flora can give active growth and reproduction, causing blossoming symptoms of thrush.
Why thrush in the mouth appears in young children
The infant becomes infected from the mother during labor if the mother is an asymptomatic carrier of the fungus, or if she has clinical manifestations of sexual candidiasis.The child can infect and in the maternity home with inadequate observance of sanitary norms.Immaturity of the mucosa and imperfect immunity leads to the rapid development of thrush in the mouth of the baby.
Note: neonatologist should carefully examine the child, and at the slightest manifestations of thrush to begin treatment.
If this is not done, then it is possible to allow the development of candidiasis of a neglected stage, when the child has a pronounced plaque and general symptoms - temperature, weakness, refusal of food, tearfulness, sleep disturbances.
Treatment of thrush in the mouth
Treatment is prescribed after examination and confirmation of the presence of a fungus pathogen.Based on the data obtained, the doctor prescribes the necessary preparation, selects the individual dosage and duration of the procedure.With insufficient effectiveness, drugs are changed, combined.Dosages can also be adjusted.If necessary, they increase, or decrease.
Treatment of fungal lesions leading to thrush is performed by an antifungal medication group.
Drugs are used for general treatment in tableted form, and for local effects( ointments, gels, sprays, solutions, rinses).The most effective way to get rid of thrush is a combination of general and local remedies.
Sometimes candidiasis occurs against a background of another bacterial infection, in this case, combined treatment with different groups of antibacterial drugs( antibiotics and antifungal agents) is required.
- Natamycin is an antibiotic of the macrolide group.Used for treatment of thrush since 3 years of age.The course of treatment is up to 7 days.An average of 4 tablets per day.There is an ointment form of the medicine.
- Nystatin is a polyene antibiotic capable of destroying the cellular forms of the thrush pathogen.Treatment is prescribed for 2 weeks individually selected doses.Applicable, including in young children.It is produced both in tablets and in the form of ointments.
- Fluconazole( Diflucan, Flucostat) is a potent antifungal drug widely available in doses of 50,100 and 150 mg.It is applied depending on the form of fungal attack by different schemes.The most mild cases are treated with a single use.
- Miconazole - is similar to the above drugs, which is used for 250 mg for three consecutive days;
- Ketoconazole - The treatment course for this medication can be up to 5 days, and the recommended dose is up to 2 tablets per day;
Drugs that have a general effect on the whole organism in fungal pathology have been developed quite a lot.Their application is based on the experience of the doctor and the subtleties of the mechanism of action.
Based on the active ingredients used in the tablet form, ointments have been developed that have a local antifungal effect.The most famous in our days are Nystatin, Levorin, Clotrimazole and many others .About neither destroy membranes of fungal cells with direct contact and increase the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in them, which causes the death of fungi.Most often, creams, gels or solutions are used to lubricate the affected mammary surfaces of the oral mucosa.
However, these medications can also give a number of side effects - abdominal pain, stool disorders, weakness, allergic manifestations.In this case, it is necessary to immediately stop the reception and talk about the problem to the treating doctor.
In case of acute form of thrush, locally, use methylene blue, Lugol solution, Fukortzin.
As an auxiliary treatment, rinse the mouth with solutions of soda, boric acid, iodinol.Rinse should be repeated every 2 to 3 hours.
Treatment of thrush should be supplemented with vitamin therapy.The intake of ascorbic acid, pyridoxine and thiamine stabilizes the immune system, enabling it to successfully resist the disease.
With the available allergic component and with complications from medication, antihistamines are recommended.
Diet for Candidiasis
Patients should review their diet, remove acidic foods, smoked products, spices.At the time of treatment it is better to refrain from white varieties of bread, sugar.In food should predominate: vegetable fiber( fruits and vegetables), boiled, lean meat.
Traditional medicine in the treatment of thrush in the mouth
Rinse the oral cavity with decoction of the oak bark, infusions of St. John's wort and marigold give good results in the complex.To enhance the effect of these infusions can add a small amount of apple cider vinegar.
Prevention of yeast infection
Fully cured thrush can periodically reappear.Relapses are caused by immune malfunctions in the body.Therefore, the main preventive measure, which prevents the development of thrush, is hygiene, a healthy lifestyle, rational nutrition, daily walks.Especially these recommendations are relevant when it comes to young children.
Alexander Lotin, medical reviewer