Prevention of diabetes in children and adults
Jun 16, 2018
It is possible to conduct any prophylaxis only in relation to diabetes mellitus of the second type - this disease is often called "diabetes of obese people" and is directly associated with the fullness and sedentary lifestyle.But the first type of diabetes and gestational diabetes develops for no apparent reason, so it is not clear what to "prevent".
The peculiarity of type 2 diabetes is that the pancreas produces a perfectly normal amount of insulin, but the body can not cope with it.Table of contents: How not to get diabetes of the second type The first signs of diabetes that should be alerted Who is at risk for diabetes of the second type
How not to get diabetes of the second type
The most important in all the prevention of type 2 diabetes is to observeCertain rules of nutrition. Specialists claim that the following rules will be prevented:
- You need to take food at certain times and in small portions.Such a schedule will develop an accurate scheme of "food-insulin" in the organism, there will be no excess pancreatic enzyme intake during snacks, and small portions of products will help to contain excessive production of insulin.
- It is necessary to limit the number of foods with high sugar content, exclude baking with a high glycemic index.This does not mean that you need to completely abandon sweets and pies, but that's the most to reduce the amount of absorbed desserts you need.
- Coffee and tea get used to drinking without sugar, before using any product you need to carefully study its composition.For example, even in the usual mayonnaise contains sugar, although manufacturers "mask" it under fructose, dextrose, molasses, or cane juice.The best option is to replace sugar with honey or dried fruits.
- The menu must contain foods high in complex carbohydrates.These include:
- buckwheat groats;
- bread made from wholemeal flour;
- You can not overeat!A portion for one meal should fit in the palm of a person.Of course, you need to get used to it gradually - doctors recommend not experimenting with a sharp restriction on the number of meals consumed, but regularly reducing it, gradually coming to the right amount.
- The amount of fat in food should be reduced, in any case, refined oils and trans fats need to be discarded.
- Follow the work of the intestine, and to normalize this process you need to enter into the menu products with high fiber content - berries, nuts, vegetables, fruits, bran( wheat and rye), dried apricots, prunes.Remember that the fiber per person per day is 25-40 grams.
- Need to give up high-calorie foods and fast food.It is advisable to count the calories of each portion of food, it is easy to do - examples of tables for counting calories are available on the net.
Note: can say that the first dishes in the amount of 500 grams have 200-300 kcal, but if the soups are cooked on the basis of meat or milk, then their caloric content increases to 400-500 kcal per serving.The second dishes can also be accurately calculated - for example, meat will give 500-600 calories per 200 grams of portions, fish - 400-500 kcal, vegetable - 200-300 kcal.But the caloric content of desserts is always variable - for 100 grams of such food can account for 300-700 kcal.Recommended to read:
- It is desirable to completely abandon alcoholic beverages.
- In sufficient quantities, you need to consume vitamins and various mineral supplements.In order not to make a mistake in the choice and dosage, it is worth to visit the therapist, undergo a survey and find out which complexes will be needed.
- If the age has exceeded 40 years, then you need to regularly monitor blood sugar levels.You can visit a polyclinic institution once a month and take a detailed blood test for sugar, or you can use portable glucometers - it's more convenient and practical.
First signs of diabetes that should alert
There is an accurate list of symptoms / signs that should be the reason for the visit to the endocrinologist.If their person notes at themselves or their loved ones, then urgent measures should be taken to help diagnose diabetes mellitus type II in time and prevent the development of serious complications.
- sudden weight loss, although no measures have been taken to get rid of excess kilograms;
- is constantly fatigued;
- increased irritability, nervousness for no apparent reason;
- general weakness even after a good rest;
- is constantly present feeling of dryness in the mouth, tormenting a strong thirst;
- at night there is frequent urination;
- is often present with a feeling of hunger even with regular meals;
- vision impairment;
- recurrent convulsions in the gastrocnemius muscles;
- regularly occurs numbness of the lower extremities.
Who is at risk for diabetes of the second type
Doctors distinguish several categories of citizens who are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes.This means that such people should not only conduct preventive maintenance of the disease, but also constantly monitor blood sugar levels.If there were diabetics in the family, then the described preventive measures should be started as early as childhood.
What will indicate the risk group for diabetes mellitus type two:
- Already overweight, obesity, and fat deposits are localized in the waist.
- A person leads a sedentary lifestyle, spends a lot of time at the computer, completely refused any physical exercises.Meanwhile, it is physical exercises that allow you to consume glucose that enters the body.
- During pregnancy, a woman gained 17 kg of weight, the child was born large( from 4.5 kg).
- The diet is absolutely not balanced - a person consumes a lot of baking and meat, but not enough vegetables and fruits, drinks sweet fizzy drinks, likes fast foods.
- Sleep is not enough - a person sleeps less than 7-8 hours a day.This lack of sleep leads to an active production of the hormone ghrelin, namely, it gives signals of hunger.
- Stress is a familiar condition.The fact is that during stress in the body the hormone cortisol is actively produced - it makes the cells insensitive to insulin, thereby increasing the level of glucose.
- There is a regular increase in blood pressure in the medical history.Yes, in itself, hypertension is not the cause of the development of type 2 diabetes, but it almost always accompanies this disease.
- There is a habit of smoking.It is smoking and is one of the many causes of diabetes.
Note: is at risk for diabetes mellitus type 2 and includes people over the age of 45 years.This is due to the fact that as the aging / aging process, metabolic processes in the human body slow down, muscle mass decreases, the weight rises - the level of sugar in the blood needs to be monitored constantly.
Prophylactic measures for diabetes mellitus type 2 will be effective only if they are correctly and consistently observed.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category