Soaking( sea sickness): causes, treatment, prevention
Jun 16, 2018
A painful condition of motion sickness( kinetosis) occurs in a person when traveling by sea( "sea sickness"), while driving, during flights on airplanes( "air sickness"), and when traveling on trains( "railwaydisease").Also occurs when visiting extreme rides, especially when staying for a long time on a swing.
Women and children between the ages of 2 and 12 are most susceptible to motion sickness.Contents: Causes of seasickness and other motion sickness Seasick development mechanism Symptoms of seasickness Treatment of seasickness Prevention of seasickness
Causes of seasickness and other types of motion sickness
Official statistics claim that up to 10% of the world's population suffers from kinetosis.
This unpleasant condition can develop for every person with prolonged exposure to an unfavorable factor and a weakened physical condition, with problems with the psyche.
The heaviest forms of kinetosis occur in marine movements.They are caused by the prolonged impact of rolling.In a plane, a person is not for a long time, as in motor transport, so the phenomena of motion sickness in them are expressed less intensively and quickly go away.But multi-day or week-long movements on the ship can have a detrimental effect on human health.Emerging variables of acceleration in different planes, with sea and oceanic rolling, closed space, high temperature of the atmosphere, high humidity, stuffiness and fear of illness, aggravate the flow of marine kinetosis.
Note: people of a younger age are more likely to have seasickness than middle and old age.A tendency for motion sickness is experienced by about 70% of people aged 18 to 25 years.
In the cabins of the bow of the ship, sea sickness occurs more often than in the living rooms of the stern.The most favorable conditions for life in the middle part of the ship.
Promotes the development of motion sickness( motion sickness), smoking smells of poisonous substances and mixtures, the intake of alcohol and fatty foods, overeating, taking certain medications.
What happens in the body with the development of seasickness
The appearance of motion sickness is associated with a very complex mechanism of unbalanced work of the vestibular apparatus, brain and organs.Receptors perceiving a change in body position are in an anatomically complex vestibular apparatus, in a specific liquid medium( endolymph) of the otolith complex and semicircular canals.During the movement of the body, the endolymph begins to move while irritating the receptors that transmit signals to the brain.Thus, a person feels a change in his position.
Monotonous and periodic changes in body position, especially with acceleration, cause imbalance in the work of receptors transmitting signals to the brain tissue.The brain, in turn, reacts with powerful and pathological impulses sent to human organs, with the emergence of manifestations of motion sickness.
An additional link in the development of kinetosis is the discrepancy between stimuli that enter the brain from the vestibular apparatus and information obtained through the visual analyzer.This phenomenon occurs when a person is in a closed space, moving with him.
Note: eyes do not see movement in this case, but the body( vestibular apparatus) senses it.This discrepancy causes additional stress on the nervous system with the formation of painful signs of motion sickness.
Symptoms of seasickness
The degree of severity of complaints in kinetosis depends on many factors, and the character and temperament of a person are important in this case.Calmer people tolerate this disease more easily than excitable ones.The picture of pathological signs of motion sickness is very diverse and individual.Symptoms of the disease can be isolated and manifest as combinations of the problems described below.
Marine sickness can cause:
- dizziness of varying severity;
- visual impairment, double vision, dilated pupils;
- various types of changes in consciousness - inhibition, confusion, apathy, or vice versa, arousal, the alternating alternation of these manifestations;
- convulsions, muscle tension of the body;
- lack of appetite, change in taste, excessive salivation;
- weakness, attacks of nausea, excruciating vomiting, which can often recur.In severe cases in scanty vomit masses there is bile, mucous discharge, blood veins, vomiting practically does not bring relief;
- externally - pale, the skin is covered with cold sweat;
- from the side of the heart and blood vessels - increased heart rate, occurrence of different kinds of arrhythmias, interruptions in the activity of the heart;
- blood pressure can "jump" from sharply reduced, to high figures;
- respiration is frequent, intermittent, irregular, often there is shortness of breath.
Conditionally, there are three degrees of severity of kinetosis:
- Easy degree.Complaints rarely go beyond the symptoms of dizziness, nausea and excessive salivation.
- Average degree.Attacks of vomiting, weakness, sleep disturbances are added to mild symptoms.
- Heavy Duty.Painful manifestations reach a maximum, the patient has a fear of death, painful vomiting and a combination of the problems described above.
Mental manifestations of seasickness:
- asthenic.It is characterized by depression of the patient, a sharp inhibition and emotional oppression;
- is agitated.With this option, a person suffering from motion sickness is excessively emotional, talks a lot and speaks loudly, laughs for no particular reason, his theatrics, the pretentiousness of the postures, show excessive mobility;
- mixed.Manifestations of this form consist of a shifting alternation of asthenic and agitated types of psychic reactions, often with the predominance of one of them.
The course of seasickness is affected by the general physical condition of the person and the existing diseases.Strong fatigue, stress, physical and mental overload aggravate the painful manifestations of motion sickness.Chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, heart, urinary system also contribute to worsening of the condition.
Note: together with the departure of pitching complaints quickly disappear.
In some cases, patients continue to feel bad for some time.The symptoms of motion sickness gradually go away.
The severity of the disease depends on the individual threshold of excitation of the receptors.The lower it is, the faster and more often there is an ailment, even from minor provoking factors.
Treatment of seasickness
Treatment of seasickness is based on reducing the effect of pathological impulses, and going to the central nervous system from the receptors of the vestibular apparatus, and on reducing the sensitivity of the receptors themselves.
Groups of medicines used for motion sickness:
- drugs blocking acetylcholine - Scopolamine, Aeron, Hyoscyamine.Doses, multiplicity and duration of these medications are set individually, under the supervision of a doctor, since these drugs, if misused, can aggravate the problems of seasickness.
- Drugs acting at the level of the vegetative department of the central nervous system are the main drug of this group of platyphylline.
- Sleeping, calming( tranquilizers) or stimulants of the CNS - drugs from these groups are prescribed taking into account the severity and form of motion sickness.And also, with the predominance of certain symptoms in the complaints.Simultaneous application of calming and stimulants of the central nervous system is allowed.
Some medicines can be used for preventive purposes, even before getting into conditions conducive to the onset of seasickness.The dose and drug must necessarily be prescribed by a doctor who knows all the individual characteristics of the patient.
For sale, there are complex pills for motion sickness, which include combinations of doses and preparations of the listed groups.
If necessary, treatment is supplemented with antispasmodic medications, antihistamines and even local anesthetics.
In the treatment complex, especially in severe forms, include symptomatic remedies, to eliminate complaints from the internal organs( heart, stomach and intestines, kidneys, etc.).
Preventive measures for the prevention of seasickness
Prevention, above all, concerns young people who decided to acquire a profession associated with service on ships of the navy, pilots, railway workers.Anyone wishing to associate their lives with these activities must undergo a thorough medical examination and also undergo periodic medical examinations.
Seafarers, pilots, railroad train drivers should monitor their health, engage in physical training, tempering, minimize the intake of alcohol and tobacco, and use special preventive exercises.
During the time of going to sea, one should try to visit the deck more often, look at objects outside the vessel, in order to restore the normal relationship between the sensations of the body and the environment outside the ship.
Food should be supplemented by an abundance of salty and acidic products with the ability to "load" the digestive organs and reduce the pathological impulses during the rolling process, coming from the brain to the organs.
During swimming and on land it is necessary to perform special training complexes of exercises for the constant support of the vestibular apparatus and its correct interaction with the central nervous system.The composition of the gymnastics includes the slopes and turns of the head, the tilt and rotation of the trunk, jumps.Very useful are acrobatic exercises - tumble back and forth, stand on head and hands, "wheel", etc.It is useful to train the vestibular apparatus on a swing.
Powerful preventive action has a sufficient duration of night sleep and daytime rest, especially in hot climates.
All spaces of the ship must undergo regular airing or conditioning.
Special attention should be paid to people who are at sea or other conditions that cause motion sickness as passengers, and do not have special training, and who have diseases that contribute to the occurrence of kinetosis.The hardest part is for those who have already experienced painful sensations of motion sickness in the past.
The fears that arise before them should be eliminated by constant switching of attention, especially useful physical exercises, work, stay on air.
To place them should be in the least vulnerable place of the ship - in the middle part.Sleep should be on the back.
Note: is an old naval way of alleviating the condition while motion sickness is a tight bandage of the abdomen, which is carried from the bottom up.
During the pitching do not take alcohol and smoke, as these bad habits increase the manifestation of kinetosis.During meals, you should refrain from fatty foods.
Alexander Lotin, medical reviewer