Stomatitis in adults - types, symptoms and methods of treatment
Inflammation of the oral mucosa is classified by medicine as stomatitis.Most often this disease is diagnosed in childhood, but now the problem is relevant for the adult population.Table of contents: Causes and factors of development of stomatitis in adults Types of stomatitis and clinical picture of each of them
Causes and factors of development of stomatitis in adults
Dentists say that the causes of the inflammatory process on the oral mucosa can be:
- Various pathogens are pathogens - bacteria and viruses.Of course, microorganisms are in the mouth of every person, but when creating favorable conditions they begin their active growth and reproduction.
- Diet disorder.Very often, stomatitis occurs against the background of insufficient intake of vitamin B, potassium, phosphorus, iron and zinc into the body.
- Mechanical damage to the mucosa.Patients often on their own note that the first signs of stomatitis appeared after a burn of the mucosa or her trauma.For example, the often considered inflammatory process begins its development after eating too hot food or at the sharp edges of the tooth( when the fragment breaks off), which permanently injure the mucous membrane.
Factors that can trigger the development of the pathological process under consideration:
- Regular violation of hygiene rules - eating unwashed vegetables and fruits, taking food with dirty hands, irregular brushing of teeth.
- Constant use as a hygienic product of toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate - this substance is able to significantly reduce the amount of saliva released, the mucosa becomes dry and more prone to injury.
- The use of diuretics - they also affect salivation, reducing the intensity of the process.
- Carried out dental prosthetics using poor quality materials or with irregularities in measurements.
- Alcohol abuse and smoking - these substances form ulcers in the mouth, which are the optimal condition for the development of the inflammatory process.
Note: the considered pathological process can become an indicator of the general state of health - often stomatitis occurs against the background:
- of oncological diseases of the ENT organs;
- dehydration of the body - after prolonged vomiting, diarrhea;
- problems in the hormonal background - especially often stomatitis appears in women during menopause, menopause;
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract - colitis( inflammation of the intestine), gastritis( inflammation of the stomach), peptic ulcer of the duodenum and stomach.
Types of stomatitis and the clinical picture of each of them
There are several types of stomatitis that have their own specific symptoms and should be classified at the stage of diagnosing the disease, because this moment determines the choice of the method of treatment.
This kind of inflammatory process of the oral mucosa is most often diagnosed in adults.This is due to the fact that 90% of the population is a carrier of the herpes virus, which in normal condition does not cause harm to the body.But if there are favorable conditions, the development of stomatitis begins - for example, after severe hypothermia, during an exacerbation of chronic inflammatory / infectious diseases, after the transferred stresses, and so on.
The herpetic appearance of stomatitis never causes a rise in temperature and the appearance of signs of intoxication, it is characterized by the formation of multiple blisters at once on the mucosa, their rapid "opening"( in a natural way) and the formation of a very painful erosion surface.
Treatment of a herpetic kind of stomatitis consists in the appointment of the following scheme:
- anesthetic drugs - Lidocaine, Lido chlorine and others;
- anti-inflammatory drugs of local action - Solcoseryl, rosehip oil, Holisal, Kamistad;
- antiviral drugs - Acyclovir, Zovirax, Bonofont, Alpizarin, Lysozyme, etc. Please note : these medicines are prescribed exclusively by the doctor in charge;
- reception of immunomodulators - Immunal, Cycloferon and others.
The following are standard regimens for the administration of antiviral and herbal remedies recommended for herpetic stomatitis:
This kind of inflammatory process in the oral mucosa always proceeds in a chronic form.The clinical picture of aphthous stomatitis is characterized by the formation of a large number of sores, blisters and aphtha - yellow or white spots with a pronounced red rim.This disease can last for years, with periods of remission and exacerbations.
Treatment scheme for aphthous stomatitis:
- aphthae treated with boric acid and decoction of chamomile - prepare a decoction of chamomile( a glass) from a tablespoon of dry raw material and 300 ml of water, add 4 grams of boric acid;
- regularly carry out irrigation of the oral mucosa with a solution based on tablets of furacilin - thus antiseptic treatment of the mouth is performed;
- application on the area of the oral cavity with ulcers and nails is applied from sea buckthorn oil or Kalanchoe juice;
- conduct detoxification measures - intravenously inject sodium sulfate, injections are done daily throughout the treatment period;
- prescribe vitamin therapy - the patient should take multivitamin complexes, which contain vitamins B, D, riboflavin.
Important : it is necessary to adhere to a diet during the treatment of aphthous stomatitis in adults: avoiding acute, acidic, salty foods from the diet, restrict the consumption of sweet and flour, avoid the use of solid foods.Dentists recommend taking sedatives - it does not have to be medicines, you can limit yourself to broths of mint, lemon balm and motherwort.
Note: if aphthous stomatitis does not enter remission within 2 weeks, ulcerative necrotic appearance of the inflammatory process under consideration may develop.This type of disease is distinguished by the severity of the flow, it can indicate immunodeficiency, regular poisoning with salts of heavy metals.
This type of pathology is diagnosed only in people with severely weakened immunity.The fact that candidiasis is provoked by the growth and reproduction of fungal colonies such as Candida - they are present in the mouth of each person.And only favorable conditions can start a cycle of their increased growth - for example, diabetes, human immunodeficiency, long-term therapy with hormone drugs and so on.
A characteristic feature of candidal stomatitis - in addition to sores on the oral mucosa appears a persistent white coating.You can remove it literally with your finger, but in its place you will find a red, swollen focus of inflammation.
Patients complain of pain and burning with the use of even water, the appearance of cracks on the lips and jaws in the corners of the mouth.
Scheme for treatment of candidiasis stomatitis in adults:
- administration of general-purpose antifungal medications - Pimafucin, Irunine, Clotrimazole, Nystatin, Fluconazole and others;
- application of antifungal medicines for local use - Levorin Ointment, Miconazole gel, Nystatin ointment;
- regular rinsing of the oral cavity with 1% solution of baking soda, treatment of the oral mucosa with Lugol solution after each meal.
Note: is very important to adhere to the diet and refuse to eat dairy products and sweet / flour products - these products provoke the activation of fungal colonies growth.
Doctors also isolated allergic stomatitis , but do not refer to it as a separate disease.It arises against the background of the present allergic reaction to a certain external stimulus and completely disappears when the allergen is detected and excluded from the surrounding microcosm.
Recommendations for the treatment of stomatitis in adults
Note: catarrhal stomatitis( simple inflammation without any particularities) can be treated at home without going to the dentist.To do this, you should only rinse the mouth with antiseptic solutions( enough of a solution of baking soda - 1 teaspoon per glass of warm water), lubricate the affected areas with honey or sea-buckthorn oil and limit the consumption of spicy, too hot or cold food.
In general, the treatment of stomatitis in adults is necessary, following the advice of dentists:
- Do not be afraid to use painkillers - the pain in the oral cavity can be so intense that it makes it impossible for simple eating.Such medicines include:
- Geksoral tabs are tablets for resorption that contain, in addition to the analgesic substance, chlorhexidine, so they also have antibacterial action;
- Lidocain Acept - perfectly helps to remove even a strong pain syndrome with aphthous stomatitis;
- Anestesin - tablets, which need to be ground into powder and sprinkled them with affected areas of the oral mucosa.
- Anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agents for stomatitis are the basic therapy - you can use absorbable lozenges, topical preparations, irrigation solutions.For example, the desired effect will be:
- Kholisal - gel for use only in the case of dental diseases, has not only anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties;
- Ingaphitol - collection of chamomile flowers and eucalyptus leaves, used for rinsing and irrigation of the mouth;
- Cameton - aerosol / spray, perfectly removes inflammation in aphthous stomatitis;
- Evalipte M - resorption tablets, consisting exclusively of natural ingredients;
- Kamistad - gel with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, the composition includes lidocaine( be careful and exclude the possibility of an allergic reaction to it!) And a decoction of chamomile;
- Actovegin is a gel that should be used only at the initial stage of healing of deep ulcers.
- Antihistamines, antifungal and antiviral drugs should be prescribed only by a doctor.They are used in the development of certain types of inflammatory process on the oral mucosa.The most effective are:
- Miconazole( gel), Nystatin ointment is an antifungal medication that should be used only in the treatment of diagnosed candidiasis stomatitis;
- Acyclovir, interferon / oxolin ointment - these drugs are effective only in the treatment of herpetic stomatitis;
- Tavegil, Claritin, Loratodin - have an antiallergic effect.
- As stomatitis forms ulcers, then after the removal of the inflammation and getting rid of the infection( if any), the epithelial recovery is required.To do this, you can use these drugs:
- Carotolin - is applied externally, contains in its composition a large amount of vitamin A;
- Propolis Spray - accelerates the recovery of the epithelium, has a mild analgesic effect;
- Solcoseryl is a paste that stimulates the regenerative functions of the body.
Treatment of stomatitis in adults with folk remedies
There are dozens of recipes from the category of traditional medicine that will help not only to remove the pronounced symptoms, but also to accelerate the healing of stomatitis sores.Of course, do not go on about fashion and mindlessly follow the advice of ubiquitous grandmothers - consultation of the dentist will be required. However, some recipes for treatment of stomatitis in the home are approved and official medicine:
- Crude potatoes grate on a large grater, squeeze salt slightly and apply to inflamed gums - this will help to remove inflammation and reduce burning intensity;
- Prepare the carrot juice, dilute it with water in a ratio of 1: 1 and rinse the mouth with it at least 3 times a day - thus saturating the mucous membrane with vitamin A.
- Take a tablespoon of herb grass, pour 300 ml of water, boil for 3 minutesAnd insist for at least 2 hours.This decoction is very useful to rinse the mouth cavity - you need to do this as often as possible, literally in 20-30 minutes.
- Calendula flowers have anti-inflammatory properties and are able to improve the regenerative functions of the body - decoction of a tablespoon of dry raw materials and a glass of water( cook for 15 minutes, cool, strain), rinse and water the oral cavity.
- Take a teaspoon of rhizome rootstocks upright, pour 300 ml of water, boil for 20 minutes and insist for at least 6 hours.This broth is intended for rinsing the oral cavity.
Note: if the symptoms of stomatitis do not disappear and become less intense for 2 weeks, then stop treatment with folk remedies and immediately seek professional medical help.Otherwise, the risk of purulent, necrotic processes in the wound surfaces of the oral mucosa is very high.
Stomatitis in adults only at first glance seem to be the simplest disease.In fact, this pathology causes such intense symptoms that the patient is disturbed by the habitual rhythm of life - pain when trying to consume even soft food and water, the body temperature often rises, and a fetid odor may appear from the mouth.Therefore, dentists insist on a full and professional level of treatment - this will prevent the transition of the acute form of the inflammatory process in question into a chronic one.
More detailed information on the types and treatment of stomatitis you will get by viewing this video review:
Tsygankova Yana, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.