Varieties of tapeworms and how to treat them
Jun 16, 2018
Tape worms are a group of helminths that parasitize the human intestine.For them, the presence of a long ribbon-like body will be characteristic, which is divided into many small segments.The front end of the tapeworm has a head( scolex), it is equipped with specific organs that ensure the attachment of the parasite to the walls of internal organs.
Since the type of worms in question is exclusively parasitic, the nervous system and digestive organs are very poorly developed.But the reproductive system is developed simply excellent, in each segment there are genital organs, which ensures the ribbonworms excellent fertility and resistance to various effects.Table of contents: Bovine tapeworm Lentet wide Pork chopper Dwarf tseeden Echinococcus
The class of tapeworms includes: dwarf tsepene, echinococcus, bovine tapeworm, wide ribbon and pork tapeworm.
This is one of the largest representatives of the class of cestodes that parasitize a person in the body - there are data that indicate a ten-meter-long bovine seedling.Adult specimens of bovine tapeworm live in the human intestines, and their larvae live in the striated muscles of cattle.
The parasite is capable of self-fertilization, and to bring the eggs out, the four or five last segments are separated from the worm and leave the body along with the calves.It is precisely known( under laboratory conditions) that in one separated joint there are up to two hundred eggs of bovine tapeworm.
Bovine tapeworm, found in the human body, causes disease, the shadowiarine .It is easy enough to infect a representative of the class of tapeworms, for example, this can happen when eating beef, which has not undergone sufficient heat treatment.Getting into the human digestive tract, the larvae of the bovine tapeworm begin to move forward and are fixed only in the small intestine.There they have the most favorable conditions, and after 3 months the bovine tapeworm already reaches the sexually mature age.It is noteworthy that one tapeworm can live in the human body for several years.
Symptoms of tenanthinchosis:
- abdominal pains that are permanent or paroxysmal;
- nausea and vomiting for no apparent reason;
- periodic dizziness;
- constipation( not always, but there is a tendency to them);
- excessive irritability.
Note: symptoms of bovine chain infection are quite similar with signs of pancreatitis( inflammation of the pancreas), cholecystitis( inflammation of the gallbladder), and appendicitis.Therefore, the doctor when referring to the patient with the above clinical picture, necessarily send him to a survey about the presence / absence of helminthic invasion.
Treatment of tenierhinchiasis consists in eliminating the worm from the human body and eliminating diarrheal symptoms.Within the therapy, Bithionol is used in combination with Fenasal, which are taken once on an empty stomach.In some cases, treatment means taking antihistamines - the worms can cause the strongest allergic reaction.
It is easy to prevent infection with bovine chain: you should eat only well-fried / boiled beef.
This parasite occupies a leading position in the gradation of tape worm sizes.According to the literary data there were specimens that reached a length of 25 meters!The outer structure of the ribbons is broad, which is the same as that of other cestodes.
The considered type of tapeworms is the cause of tsifillobotrioza - a disease that develops when the human body infects the larvae of a wide ribbon.Infection occurs when a person often consumes raw and / or dried fish.Eggs of this parasite ripen in water, the result of maturation is the formation of coracidia - the larva, which can live freely in water for a long time.For the complete formation of the larva, it needs to get into the crustacean called the Cyclops, which serves as food for the fish.Pike, omul and perch are considered to be the most dangerous with regard to infection by larvae of a wide ribbon - these larvae most often find larvae of the type of tapeworm in question.
Symptoms of penetration into the human body of a wide ribbon:
- periodic, paroxysmal abdominal pain;
- signs of intoxication - general weakness, mild dizziness, minor and short-term increase in body temperature;
- dyspeptic disorders - nausea, vomiting, various stool disorders.
Note: in the development of tsifillobotrioza characteristic will be the allocation together with the chair of individual parts of the tapeworm.
To expel the worm from the human body, you will need to undergo a course of specific treatment.Usually, a wide ribbon is removed after taking Fenasal, Praziquantel and its analogues.
As a preventive measure, doctors recommend eating fish only after full heat treatment and categorically prohibit drinking raw water from natural water bodies.
The difference between the pork chain and the bull is that the first has well-formed attachment organs.Pork tartar has a head, which is equipped with suckers and hooks, so that this type of tapeworm is fixed to the walls of the intestine for a long time.
Infection of a person occurs if it consumes pork meat that has not undergone the necessary heat treatment.As a rule, in the human body only one pig of the pork chain is parasitic, and its life span is on the average 20 years.Such a "neighborhood" can trigger the development of disease with the shadows of , the symptoms of which will manifest mainly dyspeptic disorders.If the larvae have penetrated the body, then it is possible to expect the development of cysticercosis with great probability - they enter the brain and skeletal muscles, cause pain in muscle tissues and increased weakness.Often with cysticercosis, epileptic seizures occur.
Note: with blood flow cysticerci( larvae of pork tapeworm) can accumulate in any internal organ.The clinical picture of the disease depends on their location.
Therapeutic measures in the detection of the pork chain( adult) in the human body are the use of Praziquantel and Nichlosamide.If, after the examination, a diagnosis of cysticercosis was made, the doctor will prescribe Albendazole, Praziquantel, antiepileptic medications.
Preventive measures to prevent infection with pig chain include:
- eating pork after quality heat treatment;
- in no case do not use half-baked pork - you need to refuse from the famous steak with blood.
The length of the dwarf chain is only 5 centimeters, its body is divided into segments, necks and heads.You can infect this type of tapeworm through dirty hands, household items, unwashed fruits and vegetables, raw water.Dwarf tartar can cause the development of a person such a disease as heminolepidosis .
Symptoms that are present in a dwarf chain infection:
- decreased appetite;
- sharp weight loss;
- intermittent abdominal pain.
Note: dwarf tangerine does not cause dizziness or fever, which allows you to quickly and accurately differentiate various diseases.
Treating heminolepidosis( infection with a dwarf chain) is the use of the drug Fenasal.
This is the most dangerous parasite for humans.Echinococcus has a complicated attachment system - powerful suckers in a quantity of 4 pieces, surrounded by hooks in two rows.Sexually mature individuals parasitize many mammals - foxes, wolves, dogs, and others.And the larvae of the tapeworm of the species under consideration develop inside the intermediate hosts - horses, pigs, goats and others.The human body is also an intermediate "base" for echinococcus.
The larvae of this tapeworm pass through the stages of its development inside the echinococcal cyst, and it is rather complicated: outside the cyst is covered with a layered cuticle( its thickness can reach 1 cm), then the germinal sheath( internal embryonic), which ensures a constant growth of the laminated wall.
Symptoms in echinococcosis
In medicine, there are 4 stages of the disease:
- Latent - it flows without symptoms, the person feels well.
- The first - health disorders are subjective and slightly expressed.
- The second - objective symptoms are sharply and intensely manifested.
- Third - complications develop.
The clinical picture of infection with the type of tapeworm in question will depend on the specific internal body of the person in which the echinococcal cysts are located.
The initial stage of the disease will be manifested by the following symptoms:
- fast fatigue from the usual loads;
- excessive and unreasonable irritability;
- general weakness, increased drowsiness;
- periodic headaches;
- increase in body temperature, which is unstable;
- eruptions on the body, which are small-pointed in nature.
According to statistics, most often echinococcal cysts are formed in the liver.In this case, the patient will periodically feel pain in the right hypochondrium, make complaints about a decrease in appetite and disturbance of the stool( worries diarrhea).If the cyst is squeezed by the bile ducts, then this leads to the development of mechanical jaundice.
The second organ in the "ranking" of the location of echinococcal cysts was lung.With this arrangement of parasitic neoplasms, patients complain of persistent pain in the chest, coughing and shortness of breath, which are mostly present at night and do not have a clear etiology.Cough with echinococcal cysts in the lungs first has a non-intensive nature, is unproductive, but after a while sputum with impurities of blood begins to be released.
Note: symptoms of the presence of echinococcal cysts are similar to those of other diseases, so to clarify the diagnosis it will be necessary for the patient to undergo a complete examination.With the arrangement of echinococcal cysts in the lungs, an accurate diagnosis can be made after an x-ray of chest organs performed in two projections.
Treatment of echinococcosis is possible only surgical, regardless of which organ of a person is affected by cysts. And, after setting an accurate diagnosis, treatment should be carried out urgently, because at any moment one of the following complications may develop:
- massive invasion of echinococcus into the peritoneum with rupture of the capsule;
- development of purulent process directly in the cyst;
- breaks the cyst and releases its contents to nearby organs.
Such complications are considered dangerous for human life and require urgent surgical intervention.But you should know that the surgical treatment of echinococcosis is contraindicated in diagnosed cardiovascular insufficiency and deep functional disorders in the liver.
Treatment for infection with tapeworms should be carried out in a timely manner, as these parasites pose a real danger to human life.If there are suspicions of contamination by the parasites under consideration, it is necessary to urgently seek qualified medical care.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category