Periodontitis is an inflammatory process of the soft tissues of the oral cavity.It is recognized as the most common in dentistry - 80% of patients seek help because of the developing inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the tooth.The result of ignoring the first signs of periodontitis can be the destruction of the dentogingival joint and the loss of the tooth.In especially severe cases, periodontitis can trigger the onset of diabetes mellitus, heart attack, stroke.Table of contents: Why does bleeding occur?Symptoms of periodontitis Classification of pathology Methods of treatment of periodontitis
Why does bleeding occur?
Periodontitis can develop in every person, and, it does not depend on the patient's social status, his financial ability to create a diet. Dentists identify several main causes of periodontitis:
- Plaque.By itself, it is not dangerous, but only if the oral hygiene is correctly conducted.If the accumulation of plaque begins, then it hardens and tartar is formed.
- Hereditary predisposition.Very rarely recorded cases of genetically conditioned periodontitis.And even if a person maintains the ideal purity of the oral cavity, the development of the inflammatory process in soft tissues is inevitable.
- Hormonal disorders.Often dentists note that periodontitis began its development during pregnancy or during menopause / menopause in a woman.For patients with diabetes mellitus, the examined pathological state of the oral cavity is familiar.Insufficiency of vitamins and micro / macronutrients.In particular, dentists assure that periodontitis can develop against the background of a lack of vitamin B and C, as well as with limited intake of calcium in the body.
In addition, in some cases, the inflammatory process in the soft tissues of the oral cavity may occur due to an improper mechanism of chewing food.For example, if a person uses only one side of the oral cavity, the teeth that are not used during digestion begin to "weaken", pathogenic microorganisms multiply in the surrounding tissues.
Symptoms of periodontitis
Periodontitis is dangerous because its early stage is asymptomatic and patients turn to the dental clinic only when there is bleeding gums - this is the most important, the main sign of pathology.Gum bleeding also appears when eating hard vegetables / fruits( eg green apples, nuts), and with a banal brushing of teeth. In addition to this symptom, the symptoms of periodontitis include:
- marked reddening of the gums;
- soft tissue swelling;
- gums become excessively sensitive and respond to cold / hot / acidic food.
If at this stage of the disease professional assistance is not available, the patient notes:
- appearance of an unpleasant odor from the oral cavity;
- excretion of pus in the area of the interdental space;
- loosening of the teeth;
- formation in the gums of the so-called periodontal pockets.Dentists distinguish several types of periodontitis in terms of the severity of the course:
- is lightweight - the teeth remain immobile, the gums have partial hyperemia( redness), there is no bleeding;
- average - the depth of the periodontal pockets reaches 4 mm, the teeth begin to stagger within 1 mm in all directions;
- is heavy - the teeth are strongly unsteady, the gums are swollen, bleed, the soft tissues are moved and bare the root processes;
- tooth decay.
In addition, there is a species differentiation of periodontitis :
- Focal - one tooth is affected, localized redness and swelling of the gums are clearly visible.
- Generalized - inflammatory process of the soft tissues of the oral cavity is extended to the entire dentition, often occurs against the background of a bacterial infection and is chronic.
- Acute - all the above symptoms of periodontitis occur simultaneously, suddenly and intensely.From the inflammation of the gum, from the first days, pus and sycoca can be released.
- Chronic - a prolonged course of the disease is characterized by frequent remissions, during exacerbations there are all the symptoms of classical periodontitis, but in the course of years, there is no staggering and loss of teeth.
- Purulent - from the periodontal pockets the purulent exudate starts to be allocated, it is considered very dangerous kind of an inflammation of gums.Because it can provoke the development of an abscess.
Note: very rarely develops an atypical form of periodontitis, called aggressive.In this case, the development of the disease will be rapid and for no apparent reason.
Methods of treatment of periodontitis
Treatment of the inflammatory disease in question occurs in several stages.
Preliminary examination and consultation of the dentist
The doctor examines the oral cavity at the primary treatment of the patient and reveals not only the actual fact of the development of periodontitis, but also the degree of flow, shape.If the pathological process has gone far and the patient has already lost his teeth, then consultations of stomatologists of the orthopedist and the therapist are needed.In the case of an early stage of the disease, it is sufficient to conduct therapeutic measures, according to the recommended regimens.
Removal of plaque
In 98% of cases of patients' treatment for periodontitis, a large accumulation of plaque is found during the initial examination.Until it is removed, it is not advisable to start professional treatment.Therefore, the dentist primarily conducts hygienic procedures and cleans the entire dental line from plaque and stone.
Note: dental plaque in periodontitis is often located under the gums, and in fact soft tissues in this pathology are very painful and sensitive.To save the patient from unpleasant sensations, the doctor can use specific laser equipment and conduct the procedure under local anesthesia.
For its implementation, antiseptics can be used, and in particularly severe cases( when purulent maintenance expires from the periodontal pockets) it is advisable to use antibacterial drugs.
The dentist spends irrigation with antiseptic solutions, using a syringe the doctor injects antibacterial drugs directly into the periodontal pocket.As an intensifying component, antibiotics are given orally in tablets.It is also necessary to remove a toothache.
Treatment of the oral cavity
If dental caries is diagnosed during the treatment of periodontitis, the dentist should perform a complete sanation of the oral cavity.If a patient has an appointment with a dentist during a difficult period of periodontitis, then after the treatment procedures, you need to prepare the oral cavity for prosthetics.
Note: in the severe course of the disease under examination, the dentist performs depulpation, filling of the dental canals and the imposition of a multifunctional seal.
More details on the methods of treatment of periodontitis are told by the expert:
Periodontal disease is not dangerous at an early stage of its development.If the symptoms are ignored, you can soon expect tooth loss.In addition, the accumulation of pus in the periodontal pockets leads to the development of an abscess or sepsis, and this is already a dangerous condition for the life of the patient.
Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.