Trichocephalosis: diagnosis, symptoms, treatment
Jun 16, 2018
Trichocephalosis is a parasitic disease caused by a parasite of the genus of round helminths - a withered head.The disease is accompanied by a number of disorders primarily from the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system.The danger of the disease is associated with the long life cycle of the parasite - the vaginal head can remain in the body of the carrier for up to six years, causing significant damage to internal organs.Table of contents: Information on the causative agent of trichocephalosis Causes of trichocephalosis Symptoms of trichocephalosis Diagnostic methods Treatment of trichocephalasis Prevention measures
Information on the causative agent of trichocephaliasis
Vlasoglav is a round helminth parasitizing in the large intestine.In their size, adults usually reach more than five centimeters.In just twenty-four hours, the parasite's females can lay off several thousand eggs that in the body of the transporter are concentrated in the intestine and grow to the stage of the larvae.They are able to penetrate the mucosa, damaging it.Disease of trichocephalosis develops when affected by adult mature individuals.After ascariasis, the pathology in question ranks second in the incidence of helminth disease.
It's important to know! Vlasoglavy can parasitize exclusively in the human body, feeding on blood and cells of the intestinal mucosa.Damage to the intestines due to the disease adversely affects the activity of other internal organs and body systems.
The pathogenic effect of the parasite is as follows:
- The intestinal mucosa is mainly injured.It begins to form infiltrates and erosive foci, there is bleeding.Under the influence of a secret secreted by helminths, the mucosal cells are transformed into a semi-liquid substrate suitable for feeding parasites.
- In the large intestine, the process of water absorption is disturbed, as a result of which the patient suffers from diarrhea.
- Because of the action of the products of the vital activity of helminths, allergic reactions develop, and the nervous system suffers from the release of toxins.
- Often, an iron deficiency anemia becomes a companion of trichocephalus, since vaginal heads damage blood vessels.
Causes of trichocephalosis
The disease is transmitted by the fecal-oral route.Mature eggs of helminths can be brought into the mouth together with dirty hands, which is especially characteristic for children, as well as when eating unwashed berries, vegetables, greens, unboiled water from water bodies.Once in the body of the carrier, the larvae emerging from the eggs enter the intestinal wall, after a few days they find themselves in the caecum.Adult larvae grow to about one and a half months old.Vlasoglav is capable of parasitizing the human intestine for several years.
Trichocephalus is one of the varieties of helminthiases.This group of diseases involves a cycle of parasite development in the soil, where the eggs fall along with the feces.The process of their maturation can proceed quite quickly - literally three or four weeks.If the conditions are not quite favorable, the egg ripening is delayed for several months.
The source of infection is the person himself.In the environment, the eggs of the helminth are excreted together with feces.The patient can also infect people from his or her inner circle.
Once in the soil, the eggs ripen to the invasive stage only under certain conditions:
- air temperature - 25-28 degrees;
- availability of oxygen access;
- high humidity level.
In the environment, eggs can remain fully viable up to twenty-four months.It should be noted that the eggs of the vagal head have an amazing resistance to unfavorable external influences, in particular, drought, sunlight, temperature changes.They can stay alive even under the snow.
Since the main causes of trichocephalosis lie in the ingestion of parasite eggs, the disease is most common in children who have not yet fully mastered basic hygiene skills.Also at risk are people who are often in contact with the soil, for example, working in the field of construction or gardening.It should be noted that the peak incidence usually occurs in the last weeks of spring or early autumn.
Poultry and domestic animals can contribute to the spread of the pathogen.Easily carry on the eggs of the parasite insects( flies, mosquitoes, ants).
Symptoms of trichocephaliasis
The severity of the clinical picture for trichocephalosis is determined by the quantitative index.That is, the more parasites live in the body, the more noticeable will be their presence.The manifestation of symptoms of trichocephalosis also depends on the state of the immune system.
Infiltrates, foci of erosion and hemorrhage form in the parasite infiltration sites.Often, they get and actively develop pathogenic microbes, provoking serious dyspepsia.
Please note! Trichocephalosis is particularly severe in individuals with various chronic pathologies.With weakened immune protection, the disease in adults and children can go into a severe acute form requiring intensive and fairly long treatment.
Sometimes the disease proceeds asymptomatically, which does not allow it to be diagnosed in a timely manner.
Intestinal invasion can be suspected according to a number of basic signs, manifested in varying degrees of severity.These include:
- nausea, frequent urge to vomit;
- lack of appetite;
- intestinal disorders - frequent diarrhea with blood impurities;
- painful sensations in the field of the right side, which can sometimes be confused with inflammation with appendicitis;
- increased motility of the digestive tract due to irritation of nerve endings;
- disorders from the nervous system.
In general, trichocephalus is symptomatic of many other parasitic diseases.Continuous bloody diarrhea along with prolapse of the rectum is a common complication associated with untimely or incorrect treatment of trichocephaliasis.
The disease can occur in acute and chronic form.Also, the classification of the disease includes compensated, subclinical, manifest and complicated forms.If the infection of the body can be estimated as moderate, it will be a subclinical flow, accompanied by periodic stitching pain in the right side.
The manifest form of trichocephalosis is already characterized by more severe symptoms.Patients are marked by clear clinical signs, indicating a lesion of the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system.Digestion is disturbed, diarrhea can alternate with constipation, there is bloating.High-intensity parasitic invasion often leads to severe colitis.
Symptoms of CNS damage in trichocephalosis include
- general weakness of the body;
- increased irritability;
Children may experience seizures, as well as obvious signs of a lag in physical development.
The most severe course is observed when a combination of vaginal scalp with ascariasis or acute intestinal infectious diseases is combined.At the first symptoms of trichocephaliasis, it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible who will prescribe the examination and appropriate treatment.
Diagnosis of trichocephalosis is based on the study of the clinical picture, as well as the results of laboratory analyzes and instrumental studies.The doctor must take into account the patient's etiological affiliation to the potential risk group.
Diagnostic measures also include:
- general blood test in which eosinophilia is detected( up to 20%), signs of normochromic or hypochromic anemia, increased ESR, sometimes leukocytosis;
- endoscopic examination of the intestine( colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy).During the instrumental examination, there is hyperemia of the intestinal mucosa, the presence of erosive and hemorrhagic foci on its surface.In a number of cases, it is possible to visualize the parasites themselves in the lumen of the rectum or sigmoid colon;
- Coproscopy - identification of the presence of helminth eggs in the feces of the patient.
Detection of parasite eggs in research is often difficult, since most infected people have an easy form of invasion with a small number of helminths.In this case, repeated examination of the feces is scheduled four weeks after the first negative result.
Since trichocephalosis has a rather nonspecific clinical picture, the correct differential diagnosis is extremely important at the stage of diagnostic examination.The doctor should exclude gastroenteritis of viral and bacterial nature, appendicitis, ascariasis and other types of helminthiases.If necessary, consult a gastroenterologist, surgeon and other narrow specialists.
Treatment of trichocephaliasis
Treatment for trichocephaliasis is based on a drug effect.When fighting the examined pathological condition, two main types of antiparasitic drugs are used.Preparations of the first group act directly on helminths, causing changes in their tissues and death of the parasite.As a rule, three days of therapy is enough to ensure that all the lactose in the body are killed.Medicines from the second group also affect the parasite, causing a reduction in its musculature.Thus, the vaginal head can no longer hold its body in the intestinal wall, falls out of it and is removed from the organism of the "master" along with the calves.
The doctor individually selects the dosage of medicines and determines the duration of the course taking into account the age, the state of immunity and other features of the patient.The most commonly prescribed vermox, quantret or diphezil.
Treatment of trichocephalosis usually does not require hospitalization.An exception may be a severe course of the disease with concomitant complications.During the antiparasitic therapy, the patient must carefully observe the rules of personal hygiene and food processing.A control study of stool is performed one month after the start of therapy.
If the treatment is not effective, the doctor prescribes a repeat therapeutic course in a few weeks, but with another drug.Also, concomitant medication may be prescribed, which usually includes the intake of iron preparations, B group vitamins, probiotics and enzymes.
Please note! All persons in contact with an infected person need to undergo a threefold stool examination.Before the exact diagnosis, the administration of any antiparasitic medication is unacceptable.
After the completion of the therapeutic course, medical examination is conducted for two more years.Analysis of feces is performed in the spring and autumn, not only in patients with trichocephaliasis, but also in those close to it.The patient can be removed from the register if there are no signs of parasitic invasion during the control tests.
Prevention of trichocephalasis does not differ from the prevention of other intestinal infestations. It is based on strict observance of sanitary and hygienic standards:
- eating only washed or thermally processed fruits and vegetables,
- regular handwashing with soap,
- preventing soil contamination with excrement,
- always boiling water takenFrom reservoirs.
Mass prophylaxis of the disease consists in the examination of the population and the treatment of all patients in whom infestation is detected.No less important aspect is the sanitary improvement of the territories on which toilets are placed( construction sites, field works, etc.) In places of large concentrations of people, for example, during city holidays, it is necessary to install dry closets.As for cesspools, their contents should be subjected to the decontamination procedure with the help of appropriate antiseptics.
Trichocephalosis is a disease that responds well to therapy provided it is diagnosed in a timely manner and treated appropriately.In order to avoid the development of complications, the first signs of invasion should be addressed to a doctor-therapist or infectious disease specialist.