Morphinism - signs and methods of treatment of dependence on morphine
Morphine is a substance that was first isolated from opium in the early 19th century.The substance was named in honor of the ancient Greek God Morpheus, the lord of dreams.Morphine was actively used as an anesthetic drug in medicine of the XIX-XX century.Table of Contents: History of Morphinism Morphine Dependence Symptoms of Morphinism Development of Morphine Dependence Treatment of Morphinism
History of Morphinism
Morphinism( morphine addiction) arose after the injection method for the administration of this drug was invented.It is known that morphine was used by military doctors to eliminate pain among wounded soldiers. But soon the soldiers began to abuse the drug.Thus, at the end of the nineteenth century, morphinism was called "soldier's disease", since many soldiers returned from the war already dependent on morphine.By the way, many doctors of that time also suffered from morphine, because the medicine was at their disposal.It is known that the doctor and writer Mikhail Bulgakov also suffered from morphine.The writer devoted this problem to his story "Morphine".
Morphine is a strong anesthetic and is now used in medicine.He is appointed in severe pain syndrome with cancer, trauma.Morphine is a prescription drug that is addictive after two to three weeks of regular use. The peak of morphine addiction is considered the period of the XIX-XX century, when this dependence was very common.Morphinism is now very rare, as morphine has been replaced by various readily available synthetic drugs.
Symptoms of morphine dependence
Drug addicts inject morphine intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously.At intravenous introduction narcotic intoxication arises already after some seconds.The patient feels how a warm wave rises through the body, the feeling of bliss arises.Also there are such sensations as a pricking of a skin, gravity in extremities, dryness in a mouth.This state lasts a couple of minutes.With prolonged use of morphine, this phase soon becomes faded, and then completely disappears.
The next phase of morphine intoxication is manifested by euphoria. Drug addicts describe this condition as a feeling of bliss, complete peace, relaxation.The patient is completely detached and concentrated on his own feelings.Outwardly the person looks peaceful: the person does not express emotions, the eyelids are half-closed.Morphine causes drowsiness and often the patient under the influence of the drug is immersed in a dream.Much more rarely observed increased talkative, boastful.
Objective signs of acute intoxication with morphine are:
- Narrowing of the pupils;
- Pale skin;
- Dryness of the skin, mucous membrane of the mouth;
- Fluctuation of blood pressure;
- Reduced heart beat;
- Severe urinary retention.
Consequences of morphinism
A dangerous consequence of morphine is an overdose of morphine.Overdose occurs in several cases: when using an excessive dose of morphine or when using the usual dose of the drug after a period of abstinence from it . Morphine overdose manifests as a coma. With external examination, cyanosis, narrowing of the pupils, a drop in temperature, moisture of the skin are noted.
Breath is cut, which can gradually lead to a complete stop of breathing and as a consequence of death. Lethal outcome with morphine overdose can also occur with the development of cardiovascular insufficiency .An overdose of morphine can cause the development of intoxication psychosis.
Systematic use of morphine affects both the somatic and mental state of a person.Drug addicts constantly feel weakness, there is a decrease in the ability to intellectual activity. Dementia is gradually forming.Outwardly, the addict looks drained, the condition of the skin, teeth, and nails worsens.
Development of morphine dependence
Dependence is formed after two to three weeks of regular use of morphine. The first sign of the first stage of the already formed dependence is the painful urge to use morphine to experience the desired sensations.Against this background, sleep is disturbed, becomes shallow and short, although the general state of health does not suffer from lack of sleep.The appetite is reduced.The patient is concerned about constipation and urinary retention.
Morphine tolerance is developing fast enough.In this case, the reaction to the narcotic substance significantly decreases.To achieve the desired effect, the addict enters all large doses of morphine.
When a patient can not use a drug, he experiences dissatisfaction, a depressed mood.All thoughts of a person are occupied with thoughts about a drug, all domestic problems are receding into the background.The patient's life revolves only around the search for morphine.
After three to four months of systematic use of morphine, the second stage of dependence is formed.Individual dose of narcotic substance increases several times.The development of the second stage of morphine dependence is indicated by the emergence of an abstinence syndrome. The withdrawal syndrome manifests itself in the form of such symptoms:
- Loss of appetite;
- Sweating, periods of fever and chills;
- Yawning and sneezing;
- Muscle pain / cramps;
- Malicious, irritable mood;Abdominal pain, diarrhea.
At this point, a strong desire for a drug has already been formed.The euphorizing effect of morphine is significantly weakened.The second stage of morphine dependence can last several years.
Then the final stage inevitably comes - the third stage of dependence development.The patient already enters morphine only to maintain optimal functioning and to prevent the withdrawal syndrome .Euphoria against the background of the use of morphine is completely absent.Without morphine, a person becomes sluggish, inactive, lacking in energy.An abstinence syndrome is more protracted, during which severe cardiovascular complications occur. The patient constantly depressive mood, noted suicidal tendencies, decreased efficiency.
Treatment of morphinism
Morphinism is treated in a specialized narcological hospital .To stop acute intoxication, the patient is injected with an opiate receptor antagonist( Naloxone, Naltrexone), detoxification agents.Also prescribe sedatives, anticonvulsants, cardiovascular drugs.After relief of acute condition symptomatic treatment is included in the form of hepatoprotective, nootropic agents, vitamins. To cure a pathological attraction to morphine, the patient needs to undergo long-term psychotherapy.
Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer