Treatment of alcoholism
Treatment of alcoholism is still a very serious problem.After all, alcoholism, it's not just pampering and lack of education, but pathology, a biosocial disease that is caused by a whole complex of causes.
It is absolutely pointless to "treat" alcoholism with suggestions, ridicule, explanations designed for the patient.He himself feels and understands everything, although in public he can deny his illness and the obvious problems connected with him.We refer this to "lies"."Well, I drink like everyone else."Similarly, there are no medications or surgeries that can save a person from alcohol abuse.
Let's figure out what can be done, how to help a patient who has been caught in a network of alcohol dependence.Table of contents: Stage of alcohol dependence treatment Stage I of alcoholism treatment The second stage of treatment of alcoholism The third stage of We recommend to read:
The treatment phase of alcohol dependence
Therapeutic measures imply the patient's three-step process:
- Stage 1 of treatmentAlcoholism - elimination from the body of alcohol and its metabolic products, interruption of drinking-bout, treatment of alcoholic psychoses;
- Stage 2 - consists of a complex therapy of all organs and systems, the normalization of the functions of the nervous activity, the stabilization of the psyche.It includes psychotherapeutic techniques that prepare the patient for the final treatment period;
- Stage 3 - the final treatment of alcoholism.It means introducing an antialcoholic preparation or a coding by the Dovzhenko stress-therapy method for a certain period, usually from 1 to 5 years, to a prepared patient.
Let's analyze these stages in more detail.
The first stage of treatment of alcoholism
Treatment begins with the fact that a drinking person applies to a narcological clinic( dispensary, hospital) asking him to get out of the drinking-bout.He does it himself or accompanied by relatives.Perhaps this is the most "simple" stage of treatment.For his success, the patient's slightest desire is enough.In most cases, it is available, because for health reasons a person can no longer drink, but he can not stop himself.
So, the patient fell ill with narcologists.With what to begin treatment of an alcoholism on I a stage?
With inspection, urgent tests and immediate sobering.How?
If the patient is conscious,
- performs gastric lavage;
- then give a drink of 5-10 drops of ammonia with water;
- in more severe cases - requires intravenous drip detoxification with plasma substitutes, glucose, isotonic solution;
- , when breathing and cardiac activity is weakened, prescribe appropriate maintenance drugs;
- in case of strong arousal resort to neuroleptics and antihistamines;
- in the development of a comparative state and coma - appoint special analeptic mixtures, hormones.
Sobering up the and removing alcoholic from the drinking-bout can last from several hours to several days.
Note: treats alcoholic psychoses in specialized departments of psychiatric hospitals.
We will not deal with the details and specifics of these problems.
The detoxification activities in the treatment of alcoholism on the I phase continue for several days and are supplemented with:
- by the introduction of vitamins from the B group and other drugs with a pronounced sobering effect;
- by the appointment of tranquilizers , for the relief of anxiety, fears, arousal;
- using sleeping pills funds, since almost all have sleep disorders.
With the stabilization of the patient's condition, treatment is continued with drugs restoring the metabolism: with the amino acids , with biogenic stimulants .
All alcohol sufferers have reduced immunity, so the use of immunomodulators , phosphor medications , iron is useful.
The existing propensity to spasm of the heart and brain vessels eliminates spasmolytics and with coronaractive preparations.
Liver functions are supported by hepatoprotectors and by cholagogue medications.
The first stage of treatment with alcoholism lasts an average of about 2 weeks.All patients tolerate it well, because on the background of therapy they feel a significant improvement in the condition, and the craving for alcohol is not there.
But it's easier for the patient, what's next?Healthy?Home?No!
Everything is just beginning.With such patients it is necessary to conduct active explanatory work.If a person leaves untreated, then in the overwhelming majority of cases everything will begin anew.
psychotherapy joins the healing case.With the patient who has come to his senses, conversations about his illness are conducted, the essence of alcoholism is explained and the need to continue treatment, otherwise in most cases a new breakdown awaits him.After all, from the hospital, the patient will return to his usual life, on Wednesday, where "friends" are alcoholics and a new abyss of illness. .. Unfortunately, not everyone agrees to go further by sobriety, through life. ..
And here with those who agree, workContinues on.
Man has already realized that he is addicted.
Note: task specialists, explain to the patient that having a predilection for alcohol - does not mean being a whole life sick .No, you can be healthy, you can return work, respect, family.Just have to live, live soberly.
Here it begins:
The second stage of alcoholism treatment
The duration of stage II can be from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the form of alcoholism, age, desire to be treated, health status and other issues.
The stage can take place in a hospital, an outpatient setting, a rehabilitation center.The patient is medically corrected for the consequences.In addition to the symptomatic remedies that improve the work of the heart, nervous system, liver and other organs, the necessary psychotropic drugs are prescribed.
For what purpose?Eliminate residual mental disorders and possible emergence of new ones.If necessary, several weeks of taking tranquilizers and sleeping pills.These drugs themselves can cause with time addiction, so their appointment time is limited.
To improve brain function, is prescribed nootropics.
Note: in 2-3 weeks may come an unpleasant period - the renewal of craving for alcohol.
To reduce the likelihood of renewed cravings for alcohol or to reduce this painful symptom in the treatment of alcoholism at the second stage shows the use of psychotherapeutic techniques.Often, patients become prone to apathy, depression.This is the first signs of raising the head pull.During this period antidepressants may be very useful, which are prescribed for cycles from several weeks to several months.
The leading method of the second phase of alcoholism treatment is psychotherapy .
It is carried out individually with each individual patient and in a group.Individual psychotherapy allows you to establish a confidential contact with a narcologist( psychologist, psychotherapist), helps to find additional incentives for a sober life, helps in self-rehabilitation - very important for a desperate person.
Psychotherapy is conducted by methods:
- creating a solid installation for sobriety;
- autosuggestion( with training);
Group psychotherapy in the treatment of alcoholism includes the method rational belief .In the group, people help each other to open up more, become more frank.There is an induction effect.
The task of the therapist is to switch the consciousness of patients from alcoholism programs to sobriety.It is necessary to create patients a dominant setting of sobriety, to extinguish the work of the "alcohol center".In some way - "reprogram" the psyche.
In the process of interaction with patients, the doctor selects candidates for the subsequent stage III treatment of alcoholism, since not everyone can prescribe it.
Final.The most interesting, mysterious and contradictory.Generates a lot of rumors, misunderstandings, hopes and disappointments.
We will investigate further - what is this "mysterious" stage of treatment, how effective is it for patients with alcoholism, and what methods are used.
But for now it is necessary to say a few words about the most terrible moment of treatment - about a breakdown. ..
What is a "stall"
The first two stages are passed.The former drinker came back to normal.He recovered, his eyes brightened, thoughts cleared.
Everything?It's time to live?But no.For now, say "stop"!Why?
Alcoholism is not a disease that just lets go of its prey.How many cases - a happy, treated man returns to life, is restored at work, everyone is happy at home.Really passed the nightmare?Would he want to lose his life again and return to this pernicious pit?Of course not.A person begins life with a new line.
But one day there is unreasonable apathy, some indifference, reduced efficiency, the mood worsens, irritability appears.Something inside oppresses, presses.Appear incomprehensible vague fears, emptiness.Suddenly, depression comes.All the colors of life dim, some invisible blackness fills the present.And then a strange, forgotten desire appears.It supersedes all thoughts from the head, and the person in a semi-conscious state goes again "there".And here it is "that", which was so lacking these months - a blissful feeling of euphoria. ...Spread over the body a pleasant languor with the first glass of alcohol.
Drank a little.Nothing, good morning.I repeated it in a day.Yes, it seems, the doctor has lied - "I drink, does not pull at all".Precisely, he lied.Well, just a little bit. ..
And a few days later - a deep booze.All that was achieved, which was given by such titanic tension, collapsed.
Patient covers panic and hopelessness.
This is how the "breakdown" begins, to draw from which the patient is already much harder than the first time.And the forecast of the next treatment is not so "rainbow".
The need for the third stage of
So that this random "breakdown" takes place, and there is a third stage of treatment of alcoholism.
What is its purpose?Create a solid attitude to sobriety for a certain period of time.Which exactly - the doctor with the patient will decide individually.It is best to start from 1 year.
This is a decisive term.If a person lives a year with a sober life and will follow all the recommendations, the craving for alcohol will leave him.And after this time, it will be necessary to go through the third stage of treatment again.And already get a setting of sobriety for a longer time: 3-5 years.
How is this stage carried out?What is its peculiarity?If the two previous stages of treatment for alcoholism have been fully completed, the patient wants to continue the sober way of life, the doctor should simply help him in this.
There are several ways to achieve this result:
- Introduction of an anti-alcohol drug for a certain period.The patient is told about the possible consequences in case of alcohol use, after which they take a subscription from him about the awareness of the harm of the subsequent intake of alcohol-containing substances.Further for the treatment of alcoholism intravenously injected drug, the mechanism of "work" which is based on the effect of rejection of the body.By binding to alcohol, it blocks its disintegration at the level of poisonous acetaldehyde, which causes a person to have very painful sensations, shortness of breath, palpitation, pain and even death.Therefore, the former drinker knows: can not drink drastically .The effect of the action is not based on fear, but on an additional "lock" preventing the intake of alcohol.In addition, the drugs of this group have the ability to suppress cravings for alcohol;
- Sheet set.On the same effect, the filing of an antialcoholic drug under the skin of the scapula, or in the region of the buttocks is also based.The ampoule or tablet after the cut of the skin is implanted between the subcutaneous fat and the muscle tissue.Stitched Antabus, Disulfiram, Esperal.The effect of the filing is somewhat more pronounced, and this procedure is usually done for several years.
- Stress therapy( encoding by Dovzhenko).After several preparatory sessions, the patient undergoes a stress-formation of the setting center, which functions for a certain time in the cortex of the hemispheres.The method is based on the will of the doctor.This is the main difference between the Dovzhenko method and the hypnomethodics, in which the will of the patient should dominate.
Here are the key points of the ongoing treatment.In fact, in the arsenal of narcologists there is a huge number of author's techniques for the treatment of alcoholism.For this purpose, acupuncture, efferent methods of treatment can be used.On the topic of healing from drunkenness, you can write a separate book.
Important: any drinking person, regardless of the stage, age, sex and other moments have a chance to become healthy, you just need to want it.A doctor will always help to bring the case to the end.
About why it is difficult to stop an alcoholic and progressive methods of treatment of alcoholism in a video review narrator-narcologist narrates:
Alexander Lotin, medical reviewer, narcologist-doctor