Salmonellosis: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention
Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease caused by salmonella.This infection is widespread everywhere, it affects both adults and children.In most cases, salmonellosis occurs with gastrointestinal disorders, symptoms of dehydration and intoxication.However, weakened people and small children may develop severe septic forms of the disease, in which various internal organs, including the brain, are affected.Table of contents: How can I catch salmonella?Symptoms of salmonellosis Salmonellosis: signs of gastrointestinal form of the disease Salmonellosis in children Diagnosis Salmonellosis: treatment Prevention of salmonellosis
How can you catch salmonella?
The causative agents of salmonella are Salmonella.There are a lot of these microorganisms in nature, but for humans only about ten species of bacteria of the Salmonella genus represent the greatest danger.
Sources of pathogenic Salmonella may be:
- Patients and carriers( excretory excreted with feces).
- Infected animals( poultry, swine, cattle, cats, dogs).
- Contaminated water( when feces of people or animals enter it).
- Food( raw eggs, meat, unpasteurized milk, green vegetables, contaminated with manure).
Please note: freezing and cold are not harmful to Salmonella, these microorganisms can persist for a very long time, and under favorable conditions and multiply in products, not always changing their taste and appearance.Therefore, only high-quality heat treatment can make food safe.
The main way of infection with salmonellosis is alimentary , but it can also be infected through dirty hands( after contact with sick animals, after touching objects contaminated with faeces of sick people or carriers).
In infants, infection usually occurs when a sick mother or other family member cares for a child and does not follow the rules of hygiene( in particular, does not wash her hands after the toilet).It is also important to remember that salmonella are also released by perfectly healthy bacterial carriers, so hygienic rules should be above all when taking care of newborns.
Symptoms of salmonellosis
The incubation period for this disease lasts from several hours to several days( it all depends on how much of the pathogen got into the body and how the body reacted to the infection).
There are several clinical forms of salmonellosis:
- Gastrointestinal( with the prevalence of disorders from the gastrointestinal tract).
- Typhoid-like( in patients after a certain time after the onset of the disease appears roseoliasic rash, fever acquires a wavy character, the liver and spleen increases).
- Septic( the infection spreads throughout the body and causes the formation of purulent foci in many internal organs).This form of ailment develops mainly in people with immunodeficiencies, in which the immune system can not localize the infection in the intestine.Sometimes, in such a course of the disease, there are signs of meningeal syndrome, which is associated with the penetration of infectious agents into the brain envelopes.The most typical pattern for young children, because they have a protective barrier between the brain and blood has a high permeability.
- Wiped off( with her symptoms weakly expressed - the clinic may be limited to mild diarrhea within 1-2 days).
- Subclinical and bacteriocarrier( with these forms of the disease, there are no symptoms at all, and the presence of infection in the body can be confirmed only by analysis for salmonellosis).
The most common gastrointestinal form of salmonellosis, therefore, let us consider in more detail how it develops and manifests itself.
Salmonellosis: signs of gastrointestinal illness
Penetrating into the small intestine, salmonellae begin to multiply actively and release enterotoxins - substances that cause disturbances in the metabolism of water and electrolytes in the intestines and, as a consequence, the development of diarrhea.In addition, salmonella produce other toxins - they damage the intestinal wall and vessels.Also, in the process of fighting the immune system with infection, the cells of the pathogen are destroyed, and endotoxin is released from them, which causes strong intoxication of the organism. All these pathological processes are manifested by the following symptoms:
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Frequent( 10-12 times a day), watery-frosty stool, which has a greenish color and unpleasant odor, can have streaks of mucus in the stool.
- Pain in the abdomen.Rumbling and swelling of the abdomen.
- Increased body temperature, chills.
- Pronounced weakness.
Salmonella is lasting, usually about 10 days.After the disease, the carrier of salmonella can form.
Salmonellosis in children
In children of the first years of life, salmonellosis usually takes place more heavily than in adults.This is due to the immaturity of the immune system of babies, the faster development of dehydration in diarrhea and vomiting, and the tendency to develop seizures against intoxication and dehydration.Therefore, young patients must be hospitalized and monitored around the clock.
Important: without medical assistance the condition of the sick child can change for the worse literally for several hours.
The course of salmonellosis in newborn babies also has a number of differences: they have a predominance of common symptoms over signs of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.That is, the children become sluggish, weakened, suffer from intestinal colic, refuse food, lose weight, while vomiting and severe diarrhea may not exist.In addition, weakened children infection can very quickly spread through the body and cause the development of meningeal syndrome.
The preliminary diagnosis is based on the clinical picture and evidence of the group nature of the disease, and for the confirmation of the diagnosis, laboratory tests are carried out:
- Bacteriological examination of feces, vomit, and analysis of suspicious products,Which the patient used.
- Serological diagnosis( determination of antibodies to salmonella in the patient's blood).
Hospitalized, as a rule, patients with severe illness, small children, the elderly, people with compromised immune system, pregnant women, as well as workers in the food industry, medical workers.That is, all patients who either present a danger to others, or may suffer from serious complications of the disease( hypovolemic shock, heart failure, meningitis, purulent damage to internal organs, etc.).
Leading directions in the treatment of salmonellosis:
- Dietotherapy.It is necessary to exclude all foods that irritate the stomach and intestines( strong broths, cabbage, muffins, beans, radish, radish, smoked products, spicy dishes, etc.), as well as dairy products, fats.However, one should not starve, as this can worsen the course of the processes of intestinal reconstruction.
- Antibiotic therapy( antimicrobial drugs, salmonella bacteriophages).These drugs are used mainly in severe cases, as well as in patients belonging to risk groups( in infants, elderly people, people with immunodeficiency states) and in the decreed groups( among food workers, doctors, etc.).
- Rehydration and detoxification therapy.Patients are assigned various saline solutions, enterosorbents.
- Restoration of intestinal microflora with the help of bacterial preparations.
Prevention of salmonellosis
The main measure of prevention of salmonellosis is the proper handling of food.The following principles should be adhered to:
- Keep clean( wash hands before and during cooking, maintain order in the kitchen).
- Thoroughly wash everything that gets on the table( especially scrupulous it is necessary to treat greens, vegetables, fruits that will not succumb to high temperatures).
- It is correct to prepare potentially dangerous products( chicken and other types of meat, eggs, milk).
- Be sure to separate the raw from the finished one.
- Store products at a safe temperature.
In addition, you should drink and use only clean water for cooking, and always remember personal hygiene.
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist-doctor