Analyzes for STDs in women: a list, deadlines, preparation
Analyzes for STDs in men and women have much in common, in fact, in some cases they differ only in the method of sampling.However, there are some nuances that affect the detection of STDs and can lead to an incorrect diagnosis.Table of contents: When should I take tests for STDs? Analyzes that need to be given to a woman on STDs? Analyzes for identifying urogenital infections. Analyzes for identifying common infectious STDs. Methods for taking material for STD tests in women.
When should I surrenderAnalyzes for STDs
There are a number of indications for the survey:
- Pregnancy planning;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- miscarriages and pathologies during pregnancy;
- infertility treatment;
- three to four days after accidental sexual intercourse;
- symptomatic discharge from the vagina;
- pain and burning when urinating;
- Pregnancy management.
Assays to be passed on to women on STDs
- PCR analysis;
- complex analysis;
- enzyme immunoassay;
- smear for STDs;
- blood test;
- tests for STDs.
Analyzes for the detection of urogenital infections
The urogenital infections are:
- microflora disorders;
- inflammation of the urogenital system of a woman;
- infections: HPV, gonorrhea, herpes, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, mycoplasmosis, candidiasis, ureaplasmosis, gardnerellez.
If the first signs of the disease are found, the woman needs to immediately consult a venereologist or gynecologist and take a swab.
Important! This analysis is called a smear on the flora or microscopy.With its help, not all infections can be identified, but it can detect inflammation and dissemination of flora, as well as the presence of gonorrhea, trichomonads, fungi and gardnerella .
The PCR method makes it possible to detect DNA of the causative agents of venereal diseases in epithelial cells.
Women are advised to sow flora and sensitivity to antibiotics, planting on mycoplasmas and ureaplasma.These analyzes allow to determine the number of myco-ureaplasmas and other concomitant flora such as enterococci, streptococci, Escherichia coli, staphylococci, etc.
Also for the diagnosis of STDs in women, a modern method is used - femoflore.
Analysis, in addition to identifying STDs, allows you to assess the condition of the normal flora of the vagina in a quantitative version and determine the degree of dysbiosis.
The material for scrapings and smears in women is taken not only from the vagina, but also from the urethra and cervical canals, as well as, if necessary, with ulcers, erosions, rectum and oral mucosa.
Acute and chronic form of chlamydia, genital herpes, mycoplasmosis, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis help to identify methods for detecting antibodies to these diseases in the blood.
So, for the detection of urogenital infections a woman needs to pass the following tests:
- PCR for STDs;
- blood test for antibodies to these infections;
- general smear on the flora;
- is a femoflore;
- seeding on the flora;
- seeding on mycoplasmas and ureaplasma.
Important! All smears and scrapings take at least three places - the urethra, the canal of the cervix and the vagina.And also, if necessary, from the lesions, up to the conjunctiva of the eyes.
Analyzes for the detection of general infectious STDs
For general-infectious STDs in women are:
- hepatitis C;
- hepatitis B;
These diseases are dangerous because they affect not only the sexual organs, but the whole body of a woman as a whole. They are quite common and without treatment can lead to death.
Important! Diseases for a long time may not manifest themselves in any way, so it is extremely important to undergo an annual preventive examination.
To diagnose these infections, a woman needs to donate blood. An exception is syphilis, it is detected by the method of dark-field microscopy and PCR under condition if there is an ulcer with which it is possible to take a scraping:
- For express syphilis take express analysis and do RIBT, RPGA, RIF, ELISA.In this case it is necessary in the quantitative variant and different modifications.It is extremely difficult to diagnose re-infection of already infected syphilis.
- Blood plasma PCR, immunoblotting, ELISA, express are used to detect HIV infection.
- Hepatitis B and C are detected using the express method, ELISA for different types of antigens and antibodies to determine the stage, PCR of the blood, to determine the amount of the virus and its genotype.
A competent venereologist will tell a woman what it is better to take the analysis, depending on the day after accidental sexual intercourse.
Preparation of a woman for the delivery of tests for STDs
In order for the analyzes to show the most reliable results, they must be prepared beforehand. For this, it is necessary to adhere to several simple rules:
- Abstain from sexual acts at least three days before sampling the material for the study.This period is sufficient for the accumulation of bacteria in the vagina.
- Two hours before the test, you can not urinate.Urine can wash most of the infection.
- Recommend to conduct a provocation for a short-term decrease in immunity.This will increase the bacteria content. The simplest and most reliable method is alimentary provocation.The day before the test is taken, alcohol is consumed, either spicy or salty foods. If necessary, a provocation to gonorrhea is done directly at the medical institution.
- Analyzes for STDs are given for 2-4 days immediately after the end of menstruation.
Methods for sampling material for STDs in women
- Venous blood for examination is taken in the morning in the morning on an empty stomach.
- The doctor takes the material for crops and swabs during examination with a gynecological tool from the vagina and cervical canal, and also with the help of a urological probe - from the urethra.
- Biological material is taken no sooner than two to three days after the end of menstruation.
- For a PCR analysis, a smear is taken from the woman's vagina.
Timely delivery of tests for STD in women will eliminate the development of complications and prevent the development of pathologies in the planning of pregnancy.
Radevich Igor Tadeushevich, the doctor of the sexopathologist-andrologist of 1 category