Signs of psychopathy and methods of treatment of personality disorders
Psychopathies are painful personality changes, with emotional disturbances, strong-willed disorders, pathological experiences and attacks of inadequate behavior.People who suffer from these types of disorders can retain intellectual abilities, but often lose them.The development of psychopathy gradually leads to the fact that patients develop inadequate behavior in society, the ability to normal social adaptation is lost.Especially difficult are psychopathic manifestations, if painful changes begin with childhood.
The representative of the German school of psychiatry K. Schneider claimed that the personality of the psychopath exposes himself and the people around him to suffering.Psychopathic manifestations can undergo dynamic changes with age and human development.Especially clinical symptoms are increasing in adolescence and in the elderly.Table of contents:
Causes of psychopathy
Note: provoking factors of development of pathological changes can become severe diseases of internal organs, severe stressful situations.According to official data, psychopathy suffers up to 5% of the population.
Despite the prevalence of this pathology, its causal factors have not been studied enough.Scientists disagree in some classification issues, and in the mechanisms of development of painful changes.
In a separate large group of causes of psychopathies, brain lesions have been identified that are caused by: environmental contamination of
- severe infectious diseases;
- traumatic head injury;
- with an increased radiation background.
The above groups of harmful effects lead to painful changes in the brain, the nervous system, and as a result, severe changes in the psyche occur.
Also in the development of pathology, social factors are of great importance: the atmosphere in the family, school, work collectives, etc.Especially these conditions play a role in childhood.
The hereditary nature of the transmission of psychopathies is of no small importance.
Basic classification of psychopathies
The problem of psychopathy was of interest to many world-class scientists.This led to the creation of many classifications.We will consider the most common, most commonly used in clinical medicine.
The main groups( OV Kebrikov) stand out:
- nuclear psychopathies( depending on the constitutional type of person, in which the main role is given to heredity);
- marginal psychopathies( arising from biological problems and social causes);
- organic psychopathy( caused by organic brain damage, and manifested at the stage of personality development, aged 6-10 years).
An additional role in the development of psychopathic features is played by:
- detachment of the child from parents, families;
- super-wise, developing a painful conceit;
- is a negative or total absence of attention to its children;
- syndrome "Cinderella" - pushing to the background of the adopted child, or the formation of children in the complex due to parental increased attention given to one child at the expense of others;
- the phenomenon of "idol" is a painful perception of caring for other children by a child - a "pet" of a family society.
Note: the available psychopath-like character traits can show themselves vividly in defect of parenting and give painful emotional reactions and pathological behavior.
The basic medical classification of psychopathies divides the disease into a leading psychopathological syndrome.
In practical medicine, psychopathies are singled out:
- schizoid »
- is paranoid;
- is affective;
- are heboid;
- with sexual disorders and perversions
Symptoms of the main clinical forms of psychopathies
The main manifestations of psychopathies depend on the developing type of the disease
Symptoms of asthenic psychopathy
This form is peculiar to people of weak psychophysical type, prone to increased vulnerability, superhardness,Strong nervous and physical exertion.They are characterized by excessive anxiety( fearfulness), cowardly deeds, frequent hesitation, if necessary, to take responsibility for themselves.
Deep and prolonged experiences lead to a constantly depressed mood.Over time, there is an excessive tendency to cares about their health, hypochondriacal symptoms develop.
Asthenic psychopath is constantly tired, good health for him - an extreme rarity.In character traits excessive pedantry, biliousness prevails, there is a certain life algorithm, to go beyond the boundaries of which the patient is very difficult.
Symptoms of psychasthenic psychopathy
This form is also characteristic of a weak type of nervous system.The main feature of patients is the predominance of the second signaling system.It is peculiar to people of a mental type.In the behavior of these psychopaths, corrosiveness and excessive analysis of events and deeds, especially one's own ones, prevail.The patient is concerned about abstract, insignificant questions.For example, the color of the shirt in which to exit.Reasoning about whether or not it is worthwhile to go in this dress can lead a person to a dead end, and he will not go to the place he needs.Among the main symptoms of psychasthenic psychopathy are painful doubts( "mental chewing gum") arising from any, the most insignificant occasion.Psychasthenics are characterized by pettiness and pedantry, which in extreme degree reach the level of obsessive states.
Psychasthenics are constantly engaged in self-examination.Obsessive thoughts distract patients from real life.Insufficiency of the first signal system makes patients emotionally narrowed, "flat" and indifferent.
Patients with this form of illness look withdrawn, people and communication are avoided, are prone to self-immersion( pronounced introverts) . Thoughts and ideas of patients are obscure to others, very peculiar.Appearance, hobbies are unusual.There is an isolation from the interests of the outside world.
These people are said to be "out of this world", eccentric and indifferent to themselves and others.Often they have the developed intellectual abilities of . According to the classification of I.V.Shakhmatova singled out: is a stylistic type of schizoid psychopathy( with the presence of symptoms of closure, emotional dulness, stiffness and coldness) and asthenic type( markedly closed, accompanied by dreaminess, anxiety and combined with strange hobbies - "fags").
Symptoms of hysterical psychopathy
Human typology with predominance of the first signal system.Characteristic for the artistic type of nervous activity.The bright emotions , , which are prone to rapid polar changes , come to the forefront of this category of patients. This leads to mood swings, unstable behavior.
Patients suffering from this form are very self-centered, self-centered, with the characteristic feature of being constantly in the spotlight( demonstrative behavior).These patients inherent in the invention of stories, the tendency to fantasize and embellish the facts, sometimes they are so "screwed up" that they themselves begin to believe in their writings.With this form of psychopathy, the symptoms of often develop as a hysterical neurosis.
People suffering from this kind of mental disorder have a viscous way of thinking, cycling through details, with extreme pedantry.Thinking in them is stiff, heavily "swinging".Among the main symptoms - pettiness, scrupulousness and excessive prudence .
In behavior, there are sharp changes in attitudes toward people: from sugary obsequiousness to outbursts of anger and intransigence.One of the features of the type is inability and unwillingness to forgive.Evil and insult epileptoid psychopaths can conceal all life, and with the slightest opportunity to resort to revenge.Outbreaks of anger are strong and lasting.Patients of this form of the disease often show sadistic tendencies.
Symptoms of paranoid psychopathy
Patients in this group are prone to one-sided and obsessive thinking, are prone to forming supervalued ideas that can completely take hold of their volitional and emotional sphere.The most frequent manifestation of this morbid quality is suspicion.
A psychopathic paranoid can find in each of his friends the traits of an intruder who is watching him.Often, people around the world attribute jealousy to themselves.It seems to the patient that everyone wants to harm him, even doctors.The painful symptoms of paranoid psychopathy often manifest themselves in the ideas of jealousy, fanatical reflections, constant complaints.It is only natural that the relationship between this category of psychopaths and other people is conflict.
This group of patients is more prone to uncontrolled outbursts of anger, inadequate actions, attacks of unmotivated and expressed aggression.Psychopaths are unduly demanding of other people, they are too touchy and selfish.They are not very interested in the opinion of outsiders.
At the same time, patients with excitable psychopathy can exhibit symptoms of depressive states, despair.The most often excitable type is characteristic of alcoholics, drug addicts, socially pathological personalities( thieves, bandits).Among them, the largest percentage of offenders and persons falling for examination in forensic medical examinations.
Symptoms of affective psychopathy
This type of psychiatric disorder occurs in the form of hypertension - a condition in which patients are constantly in a high mood with a feeling of carelessness and activity.This type of patient is inclined to undertake all the tasks in a row, but none of them is able to complete.There is lightheadedness, heightened talk, intrusiveness and leadership tendencies.Affective psychopaths quickly find a common language with everyone and are no less quickly bored with their "stickiness".They have a tendency to get into difficult, conflict situations.
The second type of disorder - hypothyroidism , is the opposite of hypertension.Patients with a diagnosis of "affective psychopathy" are in a depressed state.They are inclined to see negative aspects in everything, express discontent with themselves and others, they often have hypochondriacal symptoms, extreme pessimism is observed.They are closed and have a feeling of guilt in front of everyone, they consider themselves guilty of everything that happens.At the same time hypothetics expressed resentment.Any word can deeply injure the patient.
Heboid psychopathy( emotionally dull person)
The type of this pathological process contains deviations in the sphere of notions of duty, honor, conscience.Patients of cruel temper, merciless and selfish, with an atrophied concept of shame.Human norms for them do not exist.This kind of psychopathy always takes place in a severe form.Heboid psychopaths are characterized by sadism and indifference to the suffering of other people.
Symptoms of psychopathies with sexual perversions and disorders
Clinic of these disorders occurs in combination with other types of psychopathies.Sexual perversions include pedophilia, sado-masochism, zoophilia, transvestism and transsexualism.The forms of these abnormalities are constantly reviewed by specialists, to determine the line between the symptoms of the disease and the variant of behavior within the mental norm.
Psychopathies proceed cyclically.Periods of improvement are followed by exacerbations of the painful process.Psychopathy must be distinguished from the accentuation of the personality( extreme degrees of character manifestation).
Note: accentuations are not pathologies, although psychopathies can be reminiscent of their manifestations.Only a qualified psychiatrist can distinguish psychopathy from accentuation.
Treatment of psychopathies
Therapy of psychopathy begins with the elimination of the cause that triggered the development of clinical manifestations( infectious diseases, injuries, stresses, diseases of internal organs, etc.)
Medical treatment includes:
- restorative medications: Vitamins, antioxidants, immunomodulators;
- sedative preparations( soothing at mild forms of pathology);
- tranquilizers( to stabilize the emotional background with constant overexcitation);
- Neuroleptics( in affective forms);
- antidepressants( in cases of depressive states);
- hypnotics( for stabilization in excitable forms of the disease);
- symptomatic( for problems with the heart, liver, kidneys).
Treatment of psychopathy must necessarily be accompanied by psychotherapy( hypnosis, suggestion in reality, rational psychotherapy).Widely used acupuncture, physiotherapy, especially electrosleep.
Prevention of psychopathies
Prevention of this group of diseases is possible only with large-scale measures at the state level, including the solution of socio-economic issues, early detection of abnormal behavior in children and the creation of favorable conditions for their development, with gradual adaptation in society.
The task of medicine is to effectively treat somatic diseases.
Educational institutions should instil in children a healthy lifestyle, improve the cultural and educational level.
More detailed information on the course of psychopathy techniques for their diagnosis and treatment you will get by watching this video review:
Lotin Alexander, medical reviewer