Rotavirus intestinal infection: symptoms and treatment in children
Rotavirus infection( rotavirus gastroenteritis or rotaviroz) is an acute intestinal infection caused by a virus of the genus Rotavirus .
For the first time the causative agent of this disease was discovered relatively recently - in 1973.In countries where the level of development of medicine leaves much to be desired, rotavirus intestinal infection is one of the causes of high infant mortality.Table of contents: Routes of rotavirus infection Symptoms of rotavirus infection Treatment of rotavirus infection Rotavirus infection in infants Rotavirote prophylaxis Rotavirus assays
Almost all children have been infected with rotavirus at least once.It should be noted that the likelihood of re-infection is low, since after the transferred disease is produced sufficiently resistant immunity.The most dangerous infection for infants at the age of six months to 2-3 years.Recommended to read:
In more than 95% of cases, sudden watery diarrhea in children is due to a rotavirus infection.
The causative agent is stable in the external environment, but quickly perishes at boiling.In the human body rotavirus perishes at a temperature of 38 ° C and above.
Note : among inhabitants this pathology is known as "intestinal flu", but this is an incorrect name.The influenza virus affects the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, not the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
Routes of infection with rotavirus
"Intestinal flu" in children refers to the so-called "diseases of dirty hands".The causative agent is transmitted from a sick person or a clinically healthy carrier by contact and by household means, as well as through contaminated food products( i.e., by fecal-oral route).Even impeccable adherence to hygiene rules and perfectly normal social and living conditions practically do not affect the overall incidence among children.
Important: can be infected by a person at any age, but in adults the symptomatology is usually worn out, and many may even not suspect that they are carriers of a dangerous viral infection.
Once in the body, rotavirus is actively multiplying in the cells of the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract( stomach, and also the small and large intestine).The defeat of the mucosa is manifested by its inflammation( gastroenteritis), as a result of which the digestive process is disrupted.The exciter is distinguished with a stool, starting from the very first days after the onset of the disease.
Please note : due to high contagiousness, rotavirus often causes outbreaks of the disease in preschool institutions.
Symptoms of rotavirus infection
The duration of the incubation period can be from 1 to 5 days.Rotaviroza is characterized by an acute onset and, as a rule, benign course. The first signs of rotavirus infection in children are:
- acute cramping pain in the abdominal region;
- vomiting( up to 3-4 times a day, including even in the morning on an empty stomach);
- decreased appetite;
- general deterioration and weakness;
- increase in body temperature( up to 39˚C).
Soon the patient develops acute diarrhea.The yellowish watery stool is plentiful, without any admixture of blood, with a sharp acidic odor.As a result of severe diarrhea, acute dehydration( dehydration) of the body develops, which can pose a threat to the life of the patient.
Signs of critical dehydration with rotavirus infection become confusion or loss of consciousness, as well as convulsions.
Other clinical manifestations that may be identified during the examination include:
- redness of the eye conjunctiva;
- hyperemia of palatine arch and throat.
On the second day, as a rule, drowsiness occurs due to general weakening of the body.
Clinical symptoms are noted for 4-7 days, after which the bright signs of the rotavirus infection subsided, and complete recovery with the formation of a fairly persistent immunity to the virus.
Rubbed symptomatology( single diarrhea, minor and short-term fever) is characteristic of adult patients.There is no particular threat of rotavirus in this case, but a person even with minor clinical manifestations is dangerous to the surrounding virus carrier.
Treatment of rotavirus infection
If the first symptoms appear, call a doctor immediately.Doing self-treatment is dangerous.
Note : according to statistics, more than 120 million children carry this disease each year in the world.2.5 million in serious condition get to hospitals.Almost for 500 thousand rotaviroz ends in a lethal outcome.
Similar symptoms can be observed with such dangerous infections as cholera.If rotavirus infection can be treated as an outpatient( at home), a number of other intestinal infections require immediate hospitalization.
Special methods for the therapy of rotaviroza have not been developed to date.Antiviral drugs that selectively affect the pathogen do not exist.
Patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis show symptomatic treatment.First of all, they need rehydration - the elimination of dehydration, which develops due to diarrhea and vomiting.To combat dehydration and to normalize the water-electrolyte balance, it is recommended to prepare a solution of the drug Regidron for the child.The contents of 1 sachet are diluted in 1 liter of water.Give this solution baby need 50 ml at intervals of 1 hour.In large quantities, the drug should not be taken, as vomiting may develop, and the effect will be quite the opposite.
Note: if no ready-made preparations are at hand, you can prepare a rehydration solution yourself.For 1 liter of boiled water, take 1 teaspoon of baking soda( sodium bicarbonate) and table salt( sodium chloride), as well as 2-4 tablespoons of sugar.The fluid should be given to the child until normal diuresis is restored( at least once every 3 hours).
Children with rotavirus infection benefit from a gentle diet.When the first symptoms appear, milk and dairy products should be excluded from the ration, as the organism against the background of rotaviroza poorly absorbs lactose.Of course, this recommendation does not apply to babies.Within 2-3 weeks, the baby is recommended to give breasts 1-2 times a day, and in the remaining feeding - soy or lactose-free mixture.
The child in the acute phase, as a rule, completely lacks appetite, and try to feed him against the desire should not be.In the first days of the disease, liquid porridges( only on water), medium-rich chicken broth and domestic jelly are recommended.
If the diagnosis of rotaviroz is confirmed, then to cure spasmodic pain in the abdomen, the child should be given 1 ml of non-spasmolytic No-Shpa( sold in pharmacy chains in ampoules of 2 ml).
For hyperthermia, a child older than one and a half years shows ¼ tablets of Analginum with ½ tablets of Paracetamol.To bring down the temperature, you can also use rectal suppositories( candles) Cefecon.If necessary, put them at intervals of 2 hours.
Please note: sinceThe causative agent perishes with t = 38 ° C, then it is advisable to reduce the temperature in the child only if it has risen to 39 ° C or higher.
For the control of intestinal disorders in the treatment of rotavirus infection, it is recommended to use Creon or Smecta.
Inflammation of mucous walls of the intestine and severe diarrhea inevitably lead to dysbiosis, which adversely affects the processes of digestion and assimilation of nutrients.Bactysubtil is shown to restore the normal microbiocenosis.It is given to children 1 capsule 2 times a day for an hour before a meal, dissolving the probiotic in water.
Against rotavirus gastroenteritis, a secondary bacterial infection can develop.To prevent this complication, it is advisable to use Enteroferol( preferably) or Enterol.Single dose - 1 teaspoon, and the frequency of reception - 2 times a day( in the morning and evening hours).
If the child constantly tends to sleep( and this is very typical for rotaviroza from 2 days from the onset of the disease), allow the child to sleep as long as he needs.Do not forget to regularly measure the temperature and let's drink often, but in small amounts.
Rotavirus infection in infants
In infants, dehydration develops rapidly.The smaller the weight of the baby, the higher the danger.Dehydration can lead to loss of consciousness and even death.
Criteria for dangerous dehydration in infants are:
- no perspiration;
- diuresis( no urination within 3 hours);
- dryness of the tongue;
- crying without tears.
Important: remember that a sick kid can refuse a bottle of water, so this way of replenishing the lack of fluid in the body is ineffective.A baby brigade should immediately call an ambulance team!The doctors will immediately begin intravenous rehydration and, if necessary, deliver the baby with the mother to the hospital.
Prevention of rotaviroza
Vaccination is used to prevent infection, but it is 100% effective only when carried out at the age of 1.5 weeks to 7-7.5 months.
To prevent infection of other people and subsequent distribution of rotavirus infection, the patient should be isolated until the onset of convalescence( clinical recovery).All carers for a sick child need to adhere to the basic rules of personal hygiene, ie, as often as possible, wash your hands with hot water and soap.
Assays for rotavirus
The differential diagnosis of rotaviroza from such diseases as balantidiasis, lambiosis, gastrointestinal forms of salmonellosis, dysentery, intestinal yersiniosis, escherichiosis, as well as cholera remains an important issue in the formulation of the correct diagnosis.
To this end, the analysis of feces for rotavirus is taken;It is required primarily to exclude more dangerous diseases.
The diagnosis of "rotavirus infection" is considered confirmed if a pathogen is found in the patient's stool.To detect it, an antigen test is performed.
Important: material for analysis must be delivered to the laboratory within 24 hours after receipt.
Based on the test results, a conclusion is made about the presence or absence of antigen to rotavirus in the patient's stool. Normally, the result should be only negative.
About the symptoms, methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of rotavirus infection in the video review tells the pediatrician, Dr. Komarovsky:
Chumachenko Olga, pediatrician