Whooping cough in children and adults: symptoms, treatment with medicines and folk methods
Pertussis is classified as an acute infectious disease characterized by a severe attack of cough.Pathogen of the disease - pertussis( bacterium Bordetela).The disease can be treated with medicines and folk remedies, but hospitalization is only reserved for patients in serious condition.Table of contents Forms of whooping cough Pathways of infection Symptoms of whooping cough How is pertussis diagnosed? Whooping cough diagnoses in children and adults
Forms of whooping cough
In medicine, there are three forms of the infectious disease:
- typical - the process of the disease develops according to the classical scheme;
- atypical - pronounced symptoms of whooping cough are absent, the patient is worried only by a paroxysmal cough with periodic periods of disappearance;
- bacteriocarrier - the patient is the carrier of the pertussis virus, but the infection itself is not sick( symptoms are absent).
Pathways of infection
Infection with pertussis occurs only from a sick person, or from a carrier( when the virus in the body is present, but the person does not have pertussis) - the virus is transmitted by airborne droplets.At the same time, a person is considered to be contagious not only directly at the peak of the disease, but also within 30 days after passing the full treatment.The incubation period in whooping cough is from 5 to 14 days.
Symptoms of whooping cough
For the infectious disease under consideration, a gradual build-up / addition of symptoms is a hallmark. The entire period of the disease is divided into several stages:
- The incubation period is the time from the moment of infection to the appearance of the first signs of the disease.
- Period of precursors of the disease - prodromal period:
- appears cough - dry, unobtrusive, but worse in the evening and at night;
- increases the body temperature to subfebrile indicators( 37-38 degrees);
- overall health does not deteriorate.
Note: the duration of the precursor of the disease is 1-2 weeks.
- Spasmodic period.It is characterized by a cough of a paroxysmal nature.A distinctive feature of the cough: it is a coughing jerk, which always ends with a series of convulsive tremors of the body.At the end of the attack, sputum may be allocated, often each episode ends with vomiting.Immediately at the time of the attack the patient is excited, the face acquires a blue-red color, the tongue is always stuck out.The number of attacks per day varies from 5 to 40, more often at night.
Note: spasmodic period characterized by apnea - short-term respiratory arrest( 30-60 seconds).Resolution period( reverse development).
- .Symptoms begin to disappear - first stop seizures with apnea and convulsive movements of the body, body temperature stabilizes.
Even after a complete cure for whooping cough, a patient may be coughing, but it is characterized by a lack of seizures and spasms.If such a symptom is present within 3 weeks after the diagnosis of whooping cough, then there is nothing to worry about - this is the norm.
How to diagnose whooping cough
In order to diagnose, the doctor uses several diagnostic methods:
- first, collects patient complaints - dry, paroxysmal cough with wheezing, fever, general weakness, possibleCoryza;
- secondly, it is necessary to form a medical history - whether there were contacts with a patient with whooping cough or with a carrier, whether in the recent past there had been communication with a person who was constantly coughing, whether there was a note on anticoagulant vaccination;
- third, a laboratory study of mucus from the back of the pharynx - this allows you to identify the causative agent of the disease.
Methods of treating pertussis in children and adults
Important: treatment of whooping cough is carried out at home, hospitalization is indicated only in the case of a severe course of the infectious disease in question, when the patient has irregularities in the functioning of the respiratory system and in the blood circulation of the brain.
As the patient during the development of pertussis experiences real anguish from every attack of cough, doctors try to make his condition as easy as possible. The treatment regimen for the infectious disease in question is to prescribe the following medicines:
- preparations of bronchodilator action - they dilate the lumen of the bronchi and counteract the development of spasm;
- mucolytic drugs - most often they are used in the form of inhalations, the essence of the action: dilute sputum, ensure its free outflow;
- antitussives - their doctors prescribe rarely, because the effectiveness of pertussis in such drugs is minimal;
- sedative and vasodilator drugs - they are able to improve blood circulation in the brain, work "on the lead" preventing the development of oxygen starvation.
Treatment of pertussis is carried out for individual purposes, because the course of the disease for each patient is different.For example, in severe disease or infection with pertussis virus in early childhood, the risk of developing hypoxia( oxygen starvation of the brain) increases. Therefore, it is advisable to conduct:
- oxygen therapy - through a special mask or tent( for newborns and infants), air is supplied to the children's body with a high content of pure oxygen;
- therapy with nootropic drugs - they contribute to improving metabolic processes occurring in the brain;
- two-day treatment with glucocorticosteroid hormones - they quickly and effectively reduce the intensity of seizures of convulsive cough, relieve apnea( short-term respiratory arrest).
If a patient shows a hypersensitivity or an individual intolerance to any drugs, psychoemotional agitation is noted, then doctors can prescribe antihistamines.During recovery and rehabilitation, patients must undergo vitamin therapy - vitamins B, C and A will help to restore the body quickly and increase the level of immunity.Please note: antibacterial drugs( antibiotics) are appropriate only in the first 10 days of the disease, or in case of complications in the form of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract( bronchitis) and pneumonia.
In folk medicine there are several recipes that will help to cure whooping cough more quickly.They are approved by official medicine, but should be used only as additional procedures - drugs can not be dispensed with. So, when diagnosing pertussis in both children and adults, the following recipes should be used:
- Take 5 cloves of garlic( they should be medium in size), grind and boil in a glass of unpasteurized milk.Boil the drug should be 5-7 minutes, and take every 3 hours for 3 consecutive days.
- Pour two tablespoons of finely chopped garlic with melted butter in an amount of 100 grams.Let the mixture stiffen a little - it should be rubbed into the soles of the feet for the night, from above it is necessary to warm the feet with something( wear woolen socks).
- Mix camphor and fir oil, table vinegar in equal quantities.Soak any rags in the mixture obtained, squeeze and apply to the upper part of the chest of the sick person.This compress is done at night, from above you need to cover the patient with something warm.This recipe is suitable for adults and children over 13 years.
- Take ordinary sunflower seeds, dry them in the oven or in a pan( do not fry!), Chop and pour water with honey( proportions: 3 tablespoons of seeds, tablespoon of honey, 300 ml of water).The resulting remedy should be brought to a boil and cook until exactly half of the broth remains.Here it must be cooled, filtered and taken within a day in small sips.
General recommendations for treating pertussis in children and adults
A patient with diagnosed pertussis should regularly take walks in the fresh air - it is recommended to walk at least 2 hours every day.Such walks relieve coughing attacks, serve as prevention of oxygen starvation of the brain.In some medical institutions, folk healers have such a recommendation: patients with pertussis should walk around the river every morning and inhale its evaporation within 20 minutes.Healers claim that after 5 days of regular procedures, the symptoms of the infectious disease in question disappear.So, you can combine walking in the fresh air with the implementation of this recommendation. The daily routine should be "correct" if possible;
- should avoid stress and nervous shocks;
- clearly observe the alternation of periods of rest and wakefulness;
- exclude any physical activity( even if you need walking, then try to sit more on the bench in the park than "nahazhivat" kilometers).
During the treatment of pertussis, a diet is prescribed:
- excludes alcoholic beverages, strong coffee and tea;
- in the diet is introduced food rich in vitamin B - chicken liver, chicken eggs, cottage cheese;
- eliminates fried and smoked dishes;
- preference should be given to mashed soups;
- number of meals per day - at least 6, but in small portions.
Possible complications of whooping cough
Despite the fact that whooping cough is not considered a dangerous disease for a person's life, complications can develop even with full treatment. These include:
- bronchitis and pneumonia;
- encephalopathy - brain damage accompanied by convulsive seizures;
- development of umbilical and / or inguinal hernia;
- Hemorrhage in the eye and / or brain;
- prolapse of the rectum.
Note: development of hernias, various hemorrhages and prolapse of the rectum occur only on the background of a strong cough - there is an overstrain of the muscles and ligaments, they are weakened.
Prevention of whooping coughRecommended to read:
The only way to protect against infection with pertussis virus is vaccination.It is free of charge as part of the universal vaccination of children.It is necessary to make three inoculations with an interval of 3 months.The first time the vaccine is administered at the age of 3 months, and the revaccination( last) is carried out already at 18 months.
It is regionally possible to change the scheme of revaccination - for example, in Sverdlovsk region, another revaccination is carried out at the age of 6 years.
If the pertussis infection has already occurred, then this patient must be urgently isolated from the children's and adult staff for a period of 30 days.In such a case, a two-week quarantine is immediately established in a children's institution( preschool or school).Pertussis is a fairly well known infection that can be treated and often passes without any complications.But control by doctors during the period of therapeutic measures is mandatory - this will help prevent the development of various kinds of consequences and complications.If a person has even had one whooping cough with pertussis, then he has lifelong immunity.The pediatrician, Dr. Komarovsky:
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category
tells about symptoms of pertussis, treatment of this disease and its prevention in this video review.