Oncomarker CA 19-9: interpretation of the analysis
The detection of the CA 19-9 tumor marker( carbohydrate antigen) is a method that allows a person to develop a developing pancreatic cancer( carcinoma) and other pathological conditions.
This analysis also helps to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and the possibility of developing relapses of malignant neoplasm.Table of contents: What does CA mean? 19-9 What does CA 19-9? Analysis on CA 19-9: decoding How is the
analyzed and evaluated? What does CA 19-9
CA 19-9 first distinguish in 1981In patients with cancer of the intestine and pancreas.By chemical structure, this substance is a glycoprotein that secretes a tumor.
Note: CA 19-9 is associated with one of the blood group proteins( Lewis protein) located on the surface of red blood cells.In the inhabitants of the Caucasus, he is genetically absent, so this type of people does not make sense to determine the appropriate oncomarker.Recommended to read:
To detect this oncomarker it is possible in:
- pancreatic cells;
- cellular elements of the bile duct;
- gastrointestinal tract( gastric mucosa, large intestine);
- epithelial cells of the uterus;
- ducts of the salivary glands;
- to the prostate gland.
The oncomarker is found to be normal in the contents of the secretion of the pancreas, is part of the bile, is determined in the seminal fluid.The increase in CA 19-9 values can be observed in healthy people, as well as in benign pathology.
The norm of the CA 19-9 oncomarker is within the range of 10 U / ml to 37 U / ml .
What CA 19-9 shows: the value of the analysis in CA 19-9 in the diagnosis of
Note: CA 19-9 is not used as the main analysis for the detection of pancreatic cancer, since it is not specific andSighting sensitive only to malignant formations.
Specificity of the analysis varies between 75-100%, and the sensitivity is in the range of 68-93%, which in a large percentage of cases can give a false diagnostic result.
It is practically confirmed that in the case of CA 19-9 above 1000 U / ml in 96% of cases it was a question of inoperable tumors.
According to observations of oncologists, if after the treatment the level of the oncomarker fell and did not increase, then the patients' survival was much higher and longer than for those who had the level of the analysis value growing.
And yet, an increase in the oncomarker can alert the doctor even before the clinical symptoms and complaints of the patient appear, as well as before the appearance of signs of tumors found in the radiographic and radiographic methods of investigation.
Important: to control the effectiveness of the treatment, it is not enough to use only the definition of the CA 19-9 oncomarker.Additional screening methods are needed.
Increasing the content of the oncomarker is a good help to the doctor when prescribing treatment regimens.
Analysis on CA 19-9: interpretation of
CA 19-9 may be increased in cancer processes:
- in the gallbladder and outflow ducts;
- in the large intestine( straight, sigmoid, colon);
- of stomach and duodenum;
- female genital organs, especially the ovaries;
- of the liver( hepatocellular carcinoma);
- of the pancreas.
The increase in the indicator can be in absolutely healthy people.
Among benign processes, the most frequent growth of oncomarker numbers is observed with:
- obturation processes of biliary tract( obstruction);
- inflammation of the bile duct( cholangitis);
- Infectious-inflammatory processes of the intestine;
- inflammation of the pancreas, both acute and chronic;
- cystic fibrosis( hereditary disease that occurs with the defeat of glands of external secretion);
- pathology of the thyroid gland.
No special preparation is required before passing the analysis.But a few hours before the analysis is to refrain from smoking.At least a day not to take alcohol, do not eat fried and smoked dishes, it is also worth refraining from spicy food.
Blood is drawn from the vein.The material is then transferred urgently to the laboratory for analysis.
The evaluation of the results is performed only by a physician, who in addition to the analysis has all the information about the patient.Complaints, clinical examination data, history of the disease development with complete laboratory test data are necessarily taken into account.Of particular importance are the conclusions of specialists who conducted instrumental and other special diagnostic methods.Sometimes, to discuss the results obtained, a consultation of representatives of several specialties is collected.
Note: with increased values of the oncomarker, do not panic immediately.It is necessary to undergo further examination and observation by specialists.
In some cases, with existing pancreatic cancer, the CA 19-9 concentration may be normal or even decreased.
Pancreatic cancer often occurs at a fairly young age, after 30 years.This type of malignant process refers to one of the most heavily determined.Treating it is also quite time consuming.
Therefore it is very important to use the methods available in practical medicine competently and in full.
With its nonspecificity, the CA 19-9 oncomarker still provides an irreplaceable service to physicians of different specialties.
Alexander Lotin, medical reviewer