Measles in children: symptoms, treatment and vaccination
Measles is an infection transmitted by airborne droplets, that is, when a sick child sneezes or coughs.This disease is still one of the most frequent causes of infant mortality, although doctors suggest that each child be vaccinated.According to the World Health Organization, only three years of measles vaccination led to a reduction in mortality among children by 75%.Table of contents: Symptoms of measles in children What to do for parents: treating measles Measles measles Measles vaccination
Symptoms of measles in children
Symptoms of measles develop gradually and from the first day of the disease it is impossible to say at once that it is in the childThe infectious disease under consideration.The incubation period of the disease is at least 10 days, so that as soon as the virus enters the body, there are no visible changes in the child's well-being.But after 10( in rare cases, after 14), the patient's fever rises - always suddenly and immediately to high levels( up to 39 degrees).This condition lasts an average of 5 days, but it can be noted within a week.To a high temperature, a cough, a runny nose, and sneezing are associated with small white spots on the inside of the cheeks.
Important: at the first stage of measles development, even the most powerful antipyretic drugs have only a short-term effect.People's methods of lowering the temperature are generally ineffective.
The second stage of the development of the disease is characterized by the appearance of a rash on the neck( its upper part) and face.It does not cause any inconvenience to the sick child - there is no itching or irritation.After three days, the rash spreads throughout the body, it can be seen clearly on the feet and palms.
The third stage of measles is the cessation of all symptoms.The body temperature stabilizes even at the second stage of the development of the infectious disease under consideration, and after 5-7 days after the appearance of the first measles rash its severity decreases.And, it happens in the reverse order - first pale rashes on the neck and face, and then in all other parts of the trunk.There are also cases when on the legs a measles rash only appeared, and on the upper part of the body it already begins to turn pale.
Note: elements of the rash merge and form an almost continuous "field", but even with the thickest measles rash you can distinguish absolutely healthy skin areas.After passing through all the stages of development of the infectious disease under consideration, the pigment spots( for an indefinite time, but always passing) remain on the skin, and later on the neck and face at the sites of the rash there is peeling.
Quite often, conjunctivitis is associated with the above symptoms of measles, which is characterized by copious purulent discharge from the lacrimal sac, digestive disorders - vomiting or diarrhea.
What to do for parents: treatment of measles
As soon as the child has increased body temperature, it is necessary to put him to bed and call a doctor - it's mandatory.The pediatrician will check for the presence of a measles vaccination, collect the data on those around him( perhaps one of the children playing / walking on the same site with a particular sick child is the carrier of the virus) and will put the small patient under control.
If the body temperature rises to 38.5 and above degrees, it is possible to give the sick child an antipyretic agent recommended by the pediatrician - the most commonly used is paracetamol.Necessarily need to provide the patient with a copious drink - a decoction of rose hips, tea with raspberries / kalina, compotes of dried fruits, lime / chamomile broth will perfectly suit.
Usually, in the first days of development of measles, the child has no appetite - this is due to the active activity of viruses and high body temperature.Do not forcibly feed the baby - you can give him milk and sour milk products, yogurts, broths.After the first stage of the disease is over, it will be possible to introduce into the diet of a sick child low-fat varieties of meat and fish, vegetables, steamed, jelly.
As soon as the pediatrician diagnoses measles, parents should "act ahead of the curve."For example, there is often a development on the background of the infectious disease of conjunctivitis - it can be prevented or the intensity of symptoms reduced by simple rubbing of eyes with strong tea leaves.Only do this need at least 5 times a day, then get the expected effect.
In rare cases, measles rash provokes the appearance of itching - the child should never be allowed to scratch the skin areas affected by the rash, because it can lead to infection of micro-traumas.If the itching is there, then zinc ointment can be used to reduce its intensity.But keep in mind that in all other cases nothing to lubricate and wipe a measles rash is not necessary.
Cough and runny nose in measles are symptoms, not a single disease - there is no need to apply specific therapeutic measures.But in some cases, the pediatrician can prescribe mucolytic drugs that dilute sputum, ensure her easy withdrawal and prevent the development of inflammatory processes in the upper respiratory tract.If the runny nose leads to the inability to breathe, the baby will be helped by a washing saline solution and any vasodilating drops in the nose.
Important: has no specific treatment for measles.It is pointless to give a baby antibacterial drugs( antibiotics) - they do not affect the virus and only further weaken the immune system.
If a child has been ill with measles, then he develops immunity for life - re-infection is excluded.
Danger of measles
In principle, the infectious disease in question does not pose any danger - it by itself passes and does not even require the use of any specific medications.But doctors say that the consequences and complications of measles are very dangerous - they force the World Health Organization to "sound alarm" about the spread of this infection.
The measles virus negatively affects mucous membranes, minimizes the immunity level of the child, so the body becomes a "wide open gate" for any infection.The recovery period for the immune system of a child is 2-3 months after the disappearance of all measles symptoms! The most frequent complications of measles are:
- otitis media - is characteristic as a complication of measles in young children( up to 3 years), occurs rapidly and in almost all cases goes into chronic form;
- pneumonia - is more often diagnosed in children aged 5 years and older who have had measles.This inflammation of the lungs has a rapid development, often leads to pulmonary edema and death;
- bronchitis - he is exposed to the body of a child with a weakened immune system at any age;
- laryngitis is a rapid development, the transition to a chronic form is noted in 9 cases out of 10.
Core virus can affect the central nervous system - the most severe consequences of the transmitted measles develop:
- meningitis - inflammation of the meninges;
- encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain.
In turn, meningitis can lead to hydrocephalus, damage to the auditory and optic nerves, which leads to complete, irreversible blindness and deafness of a person.
Important: if the pediatrician offers hospitalization to a child with a diagnosis of measles, then you can not refuse - in the medical institution the patient will be under the constant supervision of specialists, he will receive all necessary medical care( including emergency), which will help maximizeTo reduce the risks of development of dangerous complications.
Measles can lead to disorders of the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular, to disorders of the intestinal microflora - this condition requires long-term treatment and long-term rehabilitation with severe dietary restrictions.
The only effective preventive measure against measles is vaccination.The vaccine is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly, often the measles vaccine is combined with rubella and mumps vaccines - so the child is vaccinated immediately from three dangerous infectious diseases.
The presence of measles vaccination is a prerequisite for the placement of a child in a preschool.The vaccination is done twice - at 12 months and 7 years.This scheme of vaccination is due to the fact that after the first vaccination in 15% of cases, children do not develop immunity against measles.
Important: If, for any reason, a measles vaccination( re-vaccination) has not been performed or information about the event has been lost, it is recommended that the vaccine be administered to an adult or adolescent at any age.
Side effects after the introduction of measles vaccine are fixed rarely, but the child can rise body temperature to subfebrile indicators( 37-38 degrees) and there is a slight malaise.If the child has a history of allergic reactions, then 4-15 days after vaccination on the body may appear minor rashes - this is the norm and no therapeutic measures to take is not necessary.
Contraindications to measles vaccinations are:
- diagnosed oncological diseases;
- human immunodeficiency virus;
- allergic reaction to aminoglycosides;
- hypersensitivity or individual intolerance to chicken eggs.
If at the time of the alleged vaccination the child is ill( acute respiratory viral infections, flu, cold), the vaccination will be carried out after complete recovery and recovery of the body.
Measles is a childhood infection, which in itself does not present any danger to the health and life of the child.But this is not an excuse to refuse vaccination - complications of measles lead to severe lesions of the central nervous system and brain.To protect yourself from infection by simple preventive methods( excluding the child's stay in a children's team, frequent hygienic procedures, taking immunomodulators) is impossible - according to some sources the measles virus can spread through the ventilation shafts and enter the room through an open window.Only a timely vaccination will be the key to excluding infection of measles - immunity to this disease is developed once and for life.
All parents are recommended to watch this video review in which the pediatrician, Dr. Komarovsky, tells about measles in children:
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category