Paragripp: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention
Paragripp is an acute infectious disease that belongs to the group of acute respiratory viral infections, or ARVI.In the human body, the causative agent of this ailment penetrates through the nasopharynx, but settles mainly on the mucous larynx, causing its inflammation.Parainfluenza is affected by both adults and children, with the highest incidence rate being observed in autumn and spring.Table of contents: Pathogen parainfluenza Paragrippus: Symptoms Parainfluenza in children Diagnosis Treatment What should I do with croup?Prevention
For adults and adolescents with normal immunity, this infection is not a serious danger, but in young children, due to inflammation of the larynx( laryngitis), a serious complication - croup( laryngeal narrowing) is possible.In addition, in weakened patients and people who "swallow" the disease on their feet, the infectious process quite often extends to the lower respiratory tract and provokes the occurrence of bronchitis and pneumonia.
The viruses that cause the development of parainfluenza are related to the genus paramyxoviruses.There are 5 types, but only three are dangerous for a person( 1, 2 and 3).That is, it is possible to get parainfluenza again( the disease will be caused by another type of pathogen).
Parainfluenza infection occurs mainly by airborne droplets. Do not forget about the possibility of infection through dirty hands.Viruses can remain for several hours on hands and surfaces, to which the sick person touches fingers, stained with mucus from the nasopharynx.
Manifests the disease 1-7 days after infection. And the first symptoms of parainfluenza are usually associated with a lesion of the larynx virus.At patients appears:
- Osiplost voices( at some people the voice in general vanishes).
- Feeling of dryness, perspiration, sore throat.
- Attack dry cough.A few days after the onset of the disease, this cough passes into the damp, which may not cease for several weeks.
In addition, patients have a fever of 38-38.5 degrees.It keeps at this level for 2-3 days.Also for parainfluenza symptoms of intoxication are characteristic: lethargy, aches in the body, headache, lack of appetite.
When attaching a bacterial flora, parainfluenza can be complicated by tracheitis, bronchitis, or pneumonia. It is possible to suspect the development of these diseases by the following features:
- if on a background of a beginning recovery the body temperature rises again;
- if the patient's condition does not improve within 7-10 days;
- if cough is worse every day.
Parainfluenza in children
In children, parainfluenza is usually heavier than that in adults: almost always with a high temperature, a very strong paroxysmal cough provoking even vomiting. But the most unpleasant consequence of parainfluenza infection in young children( up to 4-5 years of age) can be a stenosis of the larynx, which leads to a violation of breathing.Its symptoms are:
- Difficult, rapid breathing( when you breathe, you can hear a whistle).
- Barking cough.
- Bluish skin color.
- Continuous salivation.
Croup usually appears at night, due to the accumulation and drying in the area of the vocal cords of the child of a large amount of mucus, and also swelling of the larynx.Taking into account such peculiarities of laryngitis, children with this disease should be laid in a room with cool and necessarily moist air( optimal temperature is 18 degrees and humidity is 50%).In addition, it is important not to allow the child's body temperature to rise to 38 degrees or more, as hyperthermia also contributes to the drying of the mucous secretions in the respiratory tract.
The basic methods of diagnosis of parainfluenza are clinical, including an assessment of the clinical picture of the disease and the patient's examination data by the doctor.Detection of the parainfluenza virus with the help of laboratory diagnostics( serological tests, PCR, ELISA) is quite an expensive study, which is carried out only in the presence of certain indications( with the development of complications, protracted disease, etc.).
Preparations from parainfluenza, which act on the virus, are not yet developed, therefore, etiotropic treatment for this disease is usually not carried out. In case of severe disease, the following drugs with broad-spectrum antiviral activity may be used:
- Grosprinozin( isoprinosine).
In addition, patients must prescribe drugs to eliminate the symptoms of the disease:
- Antipyretic drugs - paracetamol, ibuprofen.
- Antitussive remedies( only with dry non-productive cough).
- Expectorants and mucolytic drugs to relieve wet cough.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs that act on the respiratory system( eg, fenspiride).
When a complication develops( joining a bacterial flora), the doctor can prescribe antibiotics to the patient.
Regarding the regime, as with other SARS, with parainfluenza doctors recommend the first days of illness must "sit" at home.At this time, it is important to drink more fluids and maintain voice rest, that is, less talk, so as not to strain the inflamed larynx and vocal cords.
What should I do with croup?
Important: , when a child develops croup, it is necessary to call an ambulance, and while she comes, to facilitate the condition of the child herself.
Toddler should be taken in hand and reassured, as fright and excitement lead to an additional spasm of the larynx.In addition, it is recommended to throw something warm on the child and open the window or bring it to the bathroom and turn on the water( it should be cool).You can also put the patient near an ultrasonic humidifier, but you can not do hot inhalations.
Specific prevention of parainfluenza does not exist, therefore the main measures should be aimed at strengthening immunity and preventing infection by frequent washing hands, avoiding crowded places during the high incidence of ARI.
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist