How a premature baby develops
Every tenth birth, according to statistics, is early or premature, resulting in the birth of a premature baby.It is born before the 37th week of pregnancy, weighing less than 2500 grams and growing to 45 cm. These parameters of prematurity are arbitrary, since they can fluctuate in different children.The focus is still on the maturity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, as well as thermoregulation.
Premature babies are weaker, in comparison with those born on time.Therefore, their development is different from the established physiological norms of full-term babies.This difference will disappear to 2.5 - 3 years, not earlier.In addition, the development of a child born on the 32nd and 34th week will also have many differences.Table of contents: How does the premature baby look? Developing a premature baby by the months
How does the premature baby look like
Its weight is much less than the norm( less than 2.5 kg). It is scientifically confirmed that children born after 30 weeks are more likely to grow up healthy and catch up on the development of their peers than those born before the 28th week.
The earlier a baby was born, the less it has a subcutaneous fat layer.Because of this, the skin appears transparent, a vascular pattern is clearly visible through it.
Prematurity is noticeable in body proportions, large head, insufficiently formed auricles, umbilical fossa, located too low .On the body, you can also see the fine thin hair.
Immediately after childbirth on the body of such a child will not be the first-time lubricant, as it normally appears in the last weeks of gestation.The large fontanel is sometimes displaced aside, because the skull is not completely formed.The facial features are pointed, but over time they will acquire the same appearance as in a healthy newborn.
Note: , because of the absence of subcutaneous fat, these children quickly and easily supercooled, even at room temperature.Therefore, after birth, they are immediately placed in a kuvez, in which a certain temperature regime is set.
Such children cry very quietly, sometimes - even inaudibly.This is due to the immature breathing apparatus.
Degrees of prematurity
Prematurity is distinguished by considering when and with what weight a child was born.It also takes into account the existence of a backlog in the development of certain organs and systems.
In this case, several degrees of prematurity are distinguished:
- 1 degree - the baby was born on the 35-37th week with a weight of 2-2.5 kg.
- 2 degree - a child was born with a weight of 1.5 to 2 kg at the time of 32-34 weeks of gestation.
- 3 degree - the weight of a premature birth at 29-31 weeks of gestation is from 1 to 1.5 kg.
- 4th grade - children born with weight up to 1 kg and up to 29 weeks of pregnancy.
Note: the physical condition of the prematurity will approach normal at the age of 12 months, a lag before that time is considered the norm.
The development of a premature baby after its appearance is influenced by a number of factors:
- quality, regular and regular care of the baby;
- understanding of parents and their adequate attitude to the problem of the birth of a premature baby;
- the social status of the family itself.
To ensure the full development of such children, you must carefully look after them and pay attention to the work of each system and body. It should be borne in mind that children who were born before 30 weeks, lag in development from peers for 3-4 months, so they learn all the necessary skills later.
Level of development of a premature baby in 1 month
During this month, the baby will be very poorly gain weight due to an underdeveloped swallowing reflex and sluggish sucking activity. That's why often the power comes through the probe.
During this period there is a very high risk of joining infectious diseases, which give serious complications, so it is very important to protect the child.There is also a marked instability of the nervous system, which persists for up to 4 months.
Since birth, it is necessary to maintain voice and tactile and contact with the baby.He should feel his mother's voice, smell her, warm the body.If there is a possibility, then it should be provided for him as long as possible stay on the hands of my mother.
Level of development of premature at 2 months
The child becomes more robust, begins to gain weight better. Positive weight gain at the 2nd month is the main criterion for the healthy development of a premature baby.
The second month of the baby's life is allowed to spread it on the stomach.But to keep his head alone in this position, the kid does not know how, like his full-grown peers.
A well developed sucking-swallowing reflex also becomes noticeable.But in the process of natural breastfeeding, 2-month-old premature infants quickly become fatigued, so they need to be supplemented with expressed milk. It is important to consider that the interval between feedings will be less than 3 hours.
As the prematurely developed in 3 months
At this age, the kid is already trying to fix a look at the mother's face, raise his own head.We need to provide him with a full sleep and food. At the 3rd month of life, a grasping reflex begins to form, the child reacts actively to tactile contact, he has mimic reactions.
During this period the mass of the child increases by 1.5-2 times.The auditory and visual attention begins to develop more actively.It is necessary to closely monitor the physiological state of the child.It is important and do not overcool it, and do not overheat.Between feedings, the premature baby sleeps most of the time, so the waking period is short.
We should not forget about frequent changes in the position of the body.It is better if the light source is muted, but not bright, with it the neurotic will feel more comfortable.
What should a preterm baby be able to do in 4 months
A kid learns to lift up and hold his head confidently. He tries to make sounds, grab a toy with his palm, more confidently fixes a look on an object or face.
It is likely to increase muscle tone, which is easily adjusted by special gymnastics and massage for premature babies.Air baths and water procedures are very useful.
How the prematurely developed in 5 months
Now the baby can already hold a rattle in his hand or grab a hanging toy by the handle.
He often smiles, he has an interest in everything that surrounds him.He reacts much better to light and sound, wraps his head in his direction.
Also on the 5th month of premature babies begin to walk.
Sixth month of life of preterm
Now the child's weight is 2-2.5 times more than at birth.The kid tries to roll over on his stomach from the back.
The psychoemotional development of the prematurity is also accelerating.Not all children, but most of them, can already distinguish native people from strangers.When communicating with them, they become animated, become active, walk, move handles and legs.
With the support of the child's armpits, he tries to rest his feet on the surface.
Development of a premature baby in 7 months
Activity of the baby is getting bigger and bigger, he can turn on his stomach from the back and vice versa.Can make the first attempts to crawl in Plastun.
Toy in the hand at 7 months old already keeps confident. If a child is born on the 35th week, then the first teeth may begin to erupt.
What a premature baby can do in 8 months
Since this age, the baby has an interest in communicating with others, not just what he does himself.He likes verbal contact with others( reading fairy tales, singing songs, changing the intonation of words, etc.).
Movements of the child become more skillful and confident.He tries to stand alone on all fours, can swing and sit.
The baby understands well and knows some objects, can show them if asked.Starting from 8 months, a premature baby learns to eat from a spoon.
How the child develops in 9 months
There are first attempts to crawl, and the child is sitting much more confident .He constantly needs the attention of his relatives, since the need for communication increases even more than before.
At this time, he often pronounces the first words in the form of separate syllables.The child is already playing independently by toys.He makes attempts to get up, holding on to something, and sits down from the position, standing on his side, leaning on his hand.
During meals, he can put a piece of food in his mouth.At the children born on the 32-33 week of gestation, the first teeth may appear.
10th month: what a prematurecan do
At the 10th month of life, a premature baby already knows how to stand and does it fairly confidently .But still, to get on the legs, he needs support.
Important: does not need to overdo it and make the baby stand if he does not want it.Doctors do not recommend this for both term donors and premature babies.
Holding the support, the baby can move, but still prefers crawling.It shows great interest in subjects that move and make sounds. The child already knows his name and reacts to it. Those who were born before the 31st week of pregnancy, can be cut the first teeth.
Development of a premature baby in 11 months
The child already knows how to sit on his own and confidently, stand up, take the toy by hand and put it in its place.This is a period of active knowledge of the surrounding world, by crawling and standing, holding on to the support.
The kid is very active in contact with relatives.
12th month of life
Some premature babies( not all) can take their first steps toward achieving a 12-month-old age.But it's too early for them to walk alone.Approximately at this time for the physical development of premature babies catch up with their peers.At the same time, neural-mental immaturity still persists.Finally, the difference will disappear by 2-3 years( depending on the degree of prematurity).
Important Features of Newborn Care
When organizing care for prematurity, it is important to pay attention to a number of factors, including such components as:
- Observation from specialists.The first months after birth, the pediatrician should examine the premature baby every week, from the age of 2 months - every 2 weeks.This mode lasts up to 6 months.Every 3 months a consultation of a neurologist and orthopedist is necessary, 2 times a year - a cardiologist, an ophthalmologist, an endocrinologist, an otolaryngologist.Prevention of rickets in the form of the appointment of vitamin D is carried out from the 2nd week of life.
- Care products.It is very important that they are hypoallergenic and designed specifically for premature babies.This is due to the fact that these children have very sensitive skin, which is easily irritated and inflamed.
- Clothing.It should be made entirely of natural fabric, without synthetics, not bright colors, corresponding to a small size, with seams outside.Clasps are allowed only in the form of buttons, not buttons.
- Temperature in the room.The optimum humidity is not more than 70%, the temperature range of the air in the premature room is 23-24 ° C.It is important to avoid hypothermia in the first months.
- Bathing.It is necessary to remember the danger of a sharp temperature drop for such children, so they bathe in the water 36-37 ° C, at an air temperature of 25 ° C.Immediately after bathing, wrap in a preheated warm towel.
- Walking.You are allowed to walk outdoors in the summer with children who have a weight of more than 2 kg, in winter - 3 kg.Begin this process gradually, from 5 minutes a day, and on a growing daily add 5 minutes.When the walk time reaches 2 hours, it is divided into 2 times and continues to increase.In winter it is allowed to go outside at a temperature of at least -10 ° C.
In the absence of severe pathologies and due care, a premature newborn has all chances to catch up with the development of other children and grow into a healthy, strong and psychologically mature person.
Chumachenko Olga, pediatrician