How to treat Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of a large number of dangerous diseases.In the human body, this microorganism can get airborne and contact ways, but the disease after that does not always develop, in most cases the consequences of this "dating" are limited to short-term or long-term carrier.Table of Contents: Features of Staphylococcal Infection Staphylococcus aureus: how is the infection transmitted?Clinical forms of staphylococcal infection When is specific treatment needed?How to treat Staphylococcus aureus: general principles Staphylococcus aureus in the nose and throat Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine Staphylococcus aureus in children
Features of the occurrence of staphylococcal infection
Staphylococcus does not give its pathogenic properties the human immune system.In a healthy body, it is able to withstand the onslaught of all factors of the pathogenicity of this bacterium( before enzymes, hemolysins, toxins, etc.).If local and general immune defense weakens, staphylococcal infection develops.
The factors that contribute to the manifestation of pathogenic properties of Staphylococcus aureus include:
- Microtrauma of the skin;
- nutritional disorder;
- chronic diseases( eg, diabetes mellitus);
- taking drugs that have immunosuppressive action, and, oddly enough, antibiotics.
Staphylococcus is insensitive to many antibacterial drugs, therefore, from normal and uncontrolled use, normal flora( which is part of the local defense of the respiratory tract, skin, intestines, genital organs) is suppressed, and the pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms continue to excel themselvesFeel and actively multiply.Therefore, you should never take antibiotics without prescribing a doctor.
Staphylococcus aureus: how is the infection transmitted?
Infection with golden staphylococcus occurs from sick people and carriers, in which the microorganism lives peacefully on the skin, on the mucous membrane of the respiratory system, intestines, genital organs. In addition, sources of the pathogenic bacterium can be improperly sterilized medical instruments, care items for patients.
The entrance gate for infection is most often skin, respiratory tract, digestive tract.The infection in other internal organs( lungs, heart, bones, joints, brain, etc.) is, as a rule, already a secondary process.
Clinical forms of staphylococcal infection
Concrete clinical manifestations of staphylococcal infection depend on the site of introduction of the microorganism and the degree of decrease in immunity in the patient.For example, in some people, infection ends in a simple furuncle, and in weakened patients it is abscess and phlegmon, etc.
In case of lesion with golden staphylococcus skin and subcutaneous tissue the following diseases develop:
- Boils( purulent inflammation of the hair follicles).
- Hydradenitis( inflammation of the sweat glands).
- Panaritium( inflammation of the soft tissues of the finger).
- Abscess( purulent-inflammatory process in soft tissues, limited capsule).
- Phlegmon( diffuse purulent-necrotic process in soft tissues).
- With the penetration of staphylococcus through the cracks in the nipples into the mammary gland, it is possible to develop mastitis in nursing mothers.
The entry of Staphylococcus aureus into internal organs leads to the development of:
- otitis media;
- of meningitis;
- of osteomyelitis;
- of arthritis;
- of enteritis and colitis;
- abscesses of internal organs and other diseases.
The most severe form of staphylococcal infection is staphylococcal sepsis , in which a microorganism with blood flow spreads throughout the body and forms multiple purulent foci in it.
If, in the digestive tract of a person, not Staphylococcus itself gets, but its toxins( most often with food products, seeded pathogens), severe food poisoning develops with severe intoxication.
When is specific treatment needed?
Taking into account the peculiarities of the coexistence of the human body and Staphylococcus aureus, it is possible to draw the following conclusion concerning the treatment of staphylococcal infection: to treat staphylococcus is necessary only when a person has real symptoms of the disease, that is, an infection with specific manifestations. In this case, the patient is shown antibacterial therapy.
In all other situations, for example, with the carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the respiratory tract or intestines, measures should be taken to increase local and general immunity, so that the body gradually cleans itself of the unwanted "neighbor". In addition, medicines are used for rehabilitation:
- Staphylococcal bacteriophage( Staphylococcus virus).
- Chlorophyllipt( eucalyptus leaf extract) in various forms of release.If a staphylococcus aureus is detected in the throat, an alcohol solution of chlorophyllipt, diluted with water, as well as spray and tablets, is used.To sanitize the nose in each nasal passage, the oil solution of the agent is instilled, and when carrying in the intestine, alcohol chlorophyllipt is consumed inside.
- ointment Bactroban in the carriage of staphylococcus in the nose.
How to treat Staphylococcus aureus: general principles
Specialists of different profiles are engaged in the treatment of staphylococcal infection - it all depends on the localization of the pathological process( skin problems should be addressed to a dermatologist, with abscesses and suppuration - to a surgeon, with sinusitis or tonsillitis - toLOR, etc.).In addition, chronic infection may require the advice of an immunologist, since the long presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the body and the periodic aggravation of the disease caused by it is an indicator of immune disorders.
The main point in the treatment of staphylococcal infection is antibiotic therapy with drugs to which the pathogen is sensitive. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the few microorganisms that have a high ability to develop resistance to antibiotics.Especially dangerous microorganisms, "living" in medical institutions.They have met with a lot of drugs and disinfectants for their lives, so it's very difficult for doctors to choose really effective treatment for staphylococcal hospital infections.It helps doctors in this bacteriological diagnosis - the isolation of pathogens from the material taken from the patient, and determine their sensitivity to antibacterial drugs.
For skin diseases caused by staphylococcus, which occur easily, antibiotics are not prescribed orally, and local antiseptic agents are used( especially effective against staphylococcus ointment Bactroban, Baneoocin, Fusiderm).If the process becomes chronic, doctors consider the need for antibiotic therapy.
For the treatment of severe staphylococcal diseases of the skin and internal organs, antibiotics are mandatory, and often not one, but several.Begin therapy with funds with a wide range of effects, and after receiving the results of bacteriological analysis - choose antibiotics, to which staphylococcus is most sensitive.
In addition to antibacterial agents, other medicines are used for staphylococcal infection:
- Antistaphylococcal plasma( with ready antibodies to microorganisms).
- Specific immunoglobulins.
- Staphylococcal bacteriophage.
After a course of antibacterial therapy, which is usually quite active with staphylococcal infection, it is necessary to take funds to restore microflora.
Staphylococcus aureus in the nose and throat
If Staphylococcus aureus is the cause of acute and chronic inflammatory processes in the nasopharynx, the following preparations are used for the treatment of patients:
- Bacterial lysates( IRS-19, Imudon, Broncho-munal).These drugs contain particles of microorganisms, including staphylococci, which stimulate the production of antibodies.
- Chlorophyllipt, which was discussed above.
- Bactroban ointment in the nose.
- Galavit is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory drug.
Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine
In a gram of feces there should be no more than 10 in the third degree of KUE of pathogenic staphylococci - this is the norm. If the microorganisms are larger and the patient has complaints of intestinal disorders, the following drugs are treated:
- Intestinal antiseptics.
- Alcohol solution of Chlorophyllipt.
- Probiotics( products containing beneficial bacteria).
- Prebiotics( drugs that stimulate the growth of normal flora).
Staphylococcus aureus in children
Newborns face staphylococcus aureus still in the hospital, so staphylococcus aureus in a feces is not uncommon. However, most children within a few weeks from this dangerous microorganism get rid without any antibacterial treatment.Promotes this colonization of the intestine by normal microflora and breastfeeding, which helps useful bacteria to settle down, and also provides the children's body with immunoglobulins( antibodies).
If the strength of the immune system of a young organism is not enough( due to prematurity, congenital pathologies, birth trauma), serious diseases can develop. For example, in newborns, Staphylococcus aureus symptoms are specific: skin lesions resembling burns( under the action exfoliated by the microorganism, the upper layer of the skin exfoliates and bubbles form).This disease has several names - "scalded babies syndrome", Ritter's disease.In addition, neonates may develop staphylococcal enterocolitis.These conditions require the immediate appointment of antibacterial drugs.
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist