Kidney ultrasound: preparation, indications, what can be revealed
Kidney ultrasound is the most ideal method for rapid, safe and reliable examination of kidneys.To conduct ultrasound scanning without harm to health it is possible for patients of any age, including the newborn.To obtain a more complete picture, ultrasound of the kidneys is supplemented with a Doppler study, which allows one to visualize and evaluate the blood flow in the organ.Kidney Ultrasonography
Kidneys are well available for ultrasound rays, so the accuracy and specificity of the ultrasound of this paired organ is not inferior to such highly informativeAnd expensive diagnostic methods, such as computed tomography.
With the help of ultrasound examination, the doctor can determine the location, shape, size of the kidneys, clarify their relationship with neighboring anatomical structures, assess the clarity of the capsule contours, the condition of the parenchyma and the organ's pelvic system.Doppler ultrasound, however, provides very important information about the renal arteries and veins and, in general, about the blood supply to the kidneys.
Evaluating the data obtained during ultrasound scanning of the kidneys, an experienced specialist can identify:
- inflammatory process;
- anomalies( eg, doubling, absence of the kidney);
- abnormal changes in the cup-and-pelvis system;
- neoplasms and cysts;
- pathology of the renal vessels( narrowing, sclerotic changes) and much more.
Please note! Kidney ultrasound can not be considered complete without examination of the ureters and bladder( these organs are anatomically and functionally interrelated, respectively, must necessarily be examined in a complex manner), therefore during such examination the doctor can detect pathological changes from these organs.
Renal ultrasound is indicated under the following conditions:
- Pain in the lumbar region, back, pelvis, lower abdomen.
- Dysuric phenomena - painful, frequent, difficult urination.
- Pathological changes in the general analysis of urine.
- Injuries, bruises of the back, abdomen.
- Renal colic.
- Elevated blood pressure( the onset of arterial hypertension may be a consequence of kidney and kidney disease).
- Endocrine disorders, diseases of the cardiovascular system, autoimmune diseases( many of them occur with kidney damage).
- Suspicions for kidney anomalies( kidney ultrasound is indicated in children with a congenital anomalous structure of the external genitalia).
- Suspected cysts and kidney tumors.
In addition, ultrasound examination of the kidneys is shown to women in a situation with a complicated course of pregnancy( if the future mother has gestational diabetes, pyelonephritis, gestosis and other threatening conditions).
Kidney ultrasound: preparation for the
study For effective ultrasound examination of the kidneys, two conditions must be met: complete bladder and absence of gas in the intestine. When filling the bladder, the pressure in the pelvis and ureters increases, so these structures are better visualized.In addition, the study of the bladder itself is possible only when it is completely filled.As for the absence of gas in the intestine, compliance with this condition allows the doctor to examine the kidneys more accurately, otherwise the air will interfere with the passage of ultrasonic waves.
In order for the bladder to fill up before the test, it is necessary to start drinking liquid 1-1.5 hours before going to the clinic, otherwise the water will not have time to reach the urinary organs. That is, take a bottle of water with you and drink it in a salvo in front of the ultrasound booth - this is wrong.
To suppress the formation of gases in the intestine, preparation should begin even earlier - in a few days.These days it is best to switch to a special diet - to refrain from cabbage, legumes, black bread, sweets, muffins, carbonated beverages, raw fruits and vegetables, as well as other products that lead to flatulence.Every person knows what kind of food his intestines digest hard, it is also better to refuse it.Well, on the eve of the study, it is advisable not to overeat.
How do kidney ultrasound
During ultrasound examination of the kidneys, the patient can lie on his back, on his side, sit, stand - it all depends on the constitution of the person, the features of the placement of the organ and the diagnostic need.The doctor may ask the examinee to take a deep breath, hold his breath - such techniques improve the visualization of the organ.
To improve the quality of interaction between ultrasonic waves and the patient's body, the doctor applies a special gel to his skin.Then, with the help of the sensor, ultrasound is directed to the organ under examination, the image of which is displayed on the monitor.
The procedure for ultrasound examination of the kidneys, supplemented with dopplerography, lasts an average of 15-20 minutes and is not accompanied by discomfort or pain from the patient.
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist