The first symptoms of tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is one of the oldest diseases known as "consumption" or "dry illness".Despite the possibilities of modern medicine and the long period of studying tuberculosis, this disease is still not defeated - specific drugs, of course, will ease the patient's condition and even lead to recovery, but tuberculosis is still the most common pathology.Table of contents: Transmission routes of tuberculosis First signs of tuberculosis Other signs of tuberculosis
Such "invincibility" of the disease under consideration is caused by the following factors:
- The tuberculosis pathogen most often does not manifest itself in years, even when the first signs of the disease,Does not rush to a medical institution for qualified medical care.The earliest symptoms of tuberculosis are very easily confused with a common cold or fatigue, and the result of this error is lost time and the need for complex and prolonged treatment.
- Tuberculosis bacteria are characterized by increased resistance to the aggressive influence of the external environment - they endlessly persist in a viable state and infect people in places where they are not supposed to "meet".From the causative agent of the disease under consideration, it is impossible to get rid of any sanitary and hygienic measures.
- The causative agent of tuberculosis can mutate very quickly, which causes addiction to antibiotics.Moreover, very often doctors note a mutation of tuberculosis bacteria already in the body of a sick person, which leads to prolonged treatment.
Transmission routes for tuberculosis
This disease is transmitted in 4 ways:
- Airborne droplet.It is this method of infection with tuberculosis that is considered to be the leading one - about 98% of diagnosed cases fall on it. Only for one release when coughing, the patient releases about 3,000 bacteria into the air, and they fly apart to a distance of 1.5 meters( in radius).Yes, the particles of excreted sputum dry up quickly, but remain contagious! Conclusion: the greatest probability of infection with the disease in question is present in those people who are forced to stay in the same room for a long time with patients with an open form of tuberculosis.
- Contact.It is understood that the infection comes from personal things, clothes, toys and other household items that are in use by the patient. Tuberculosis can be transmitted through kisses and sexual contact, you can get it directly through the blood or scratches on the skin and mucous membranes.
Note: animals are also ill with tuberculosis, so when they come into contact with such sick animals, the likelihood of infection is very high.
- Food.This way of getting infected with the disease under consideration is more typical for rural areas, because residents rarely check the products of livestock in the laboratories before they are consumed.Fortunately, in modern conditions, tuberculosis infection by food is an exception, but if this happens, the pathology affects the organs of the digestive system.
- Intrauterine. If the future mother is sick with pulmonary tuberculosis, then the infection of the fetus is not necessary.But if tuberculosis occurs in a large form, and even in combination with HIV infection, the probability of infection of the fetus becomes very high .Diagnosis of tuberculosis of the newborn can be done by examining the placenta.The prognosis for this type of the disease under consideration is extremely unfavorable, since there is still no immunity in the body, and the child can not stand the standard aggressive treatment.
First signs of tuberculosis
At the initial stage of tuberculosis development, it is difficult to differentiate it from conventional ARI or chronic fatigue syndrome.But if you consider the first signs of tuberculosis in more detail, you can identify them in a timely manner.
The first signs of tuberculosis are:
- Changing the appearance of the patient.The disease under consideration makes the patient's face become drained, his skin acquires a pale shade, but on the cheeks, on the contrary, an unnatural blush "burns".The patient with tuberculosis is rapidly losing weight, despite the fact that the appetite remains normal and some corrections the diet did not undergo.At the very beginning of the development of tuberculosis, changes in appearance are not very noticeable, and as the pathology progresses, the appearance of the patient can presumably be diagnosed.
- Body temperature.The most important first sign of tuberculosis is elevated body temperature, which does not normalize within a month.Moreover, its appearance can not be explained by any objective reasons - the body does not have any inflammatory processes, there are no signs of a cold or flu.Since morning the body temperature of the patient with tuberculosis is within the norm, but by the evening it invariably rises to 38, 5 degrees and is always accompanied by chills.
Note: at the initial stages of tuberculosis development, body temperature never reaches febrile indices( 39 degrees or higher), but this is characteristic of late stages of the disease.
- Cough.The patient with tuberculosis coughs constantly, but at the very beginning of the disease the cough will be dry and paroxysmal, from the side it looks like a nervous reaction.As the pathology progresses, the cough becomes moist, after coughing up phlegm, the patient is relieved for a short time.
Note: if is present in a human for 20 days or more, there is a dry cough, and there are no other cold / bronchitis symptoms, then this is the reason for an immediate referral to the TB doctor to clarify the diagnosis.
- Chest pain.This symptom is more characteristic of late stages of tuberculosis when it has already taken a chronic form of the course.But at the beginning of the development of the disease, non-intensive pain can be present only at moments of deep inspiration, and the localization of pain will be under the ribs.
Other signs of tuberculosis
Tuberculosis affects not only the lungs, but also other human organs and systems. It is worthwhile to separately consider the first signs of tuberculosis of organs other than the respiratory system:
- Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system.A common sign of this type of tuberculosis is blood in the urine and its murky color.Urination becomes rapid and painful, in women tuberculosis of the genitourinary system causes intermenstrual bleeding, constant pain in the lower abdomen.In men, tuberculosis of the genitourinary system can be localized in the testicles, and then inside the scrotum there will be a swelling - painful and with exudate.
- Tuberculosis of bones and joints.Such localization of the considered disease practically never causes difficulties in diagnosis.The fact that the patient literally from the first days of infection begin to suffer severe pain in the bones and joints, the latter become inactive, a person can not without help climb the stairs or walk a few meters without a forced stop.
- Central Nervous System Tuberculosis.It is also characterized by bright, severe symptoms:
- severe headaches, which can hardly be removed even with the help of powerful analgesics;
- vision impairment;
- syncope and convulsions - short-lived, but often occurring;
- is a decoupling.
Very rarely tuberculosis of the central nervous system begins with hallucinations and mental disorders.
Note: is the tuberculosis of the central nervous system which is characterized by difficulties in treatment.Without therapy, the patient quickly dies, but even the possibilities of modern medicine do not always guarantee the recovery of .
- Miliary tuberculosis.If to explain with a simple / accessible language, then it is characterized by the spread of mycobacteria with blood flow throughout the body.At the initial stage of development of this type of tuberculosis, there are no specific symptoms, the course of the disease can be compared with the course of pulmonary tuberculosis( there is no cough only).But as soon as the disease in question begins to actively progress, the patient has signs of organ damage - problems with urination( tuberculosis affects the genitourinary system), pain in the liver and so on.
- Tuberculosis of the digestive tract.This is a fairly rare form of the disease in question, most often diagnosed in HIV-infected people.The first signs of tuberculosis of the digestive tract organs will be:
- constipation and diarrhea, possibly alternating with "enviable" constancy;
- persistent aching abdominal pain, appearing regardless of food intake;
- presence of blood in stool;
- sharp weight loss;
- constant subfebrile body temperature.
- Tuberculosis of the skin.This form of the disease under consideration is diagnosed very easily, since already at the initial stage of its development the disease manifests itself as dense painful nodules that are located under the skin without any clear localization.If the patient will comb or somehow open these nodules, there will be a white, curdled mass.
Tuberculosis is a disease that is at the same time well known to physicians and is completely unknown to the community.There are a lot of myths:
- Tuberculosis is a relic of the past.Indeed, in the 70s of the last century, so few people newly infected with tuberculosis were recorded, that the doctors had a hope for a complete victory over it.But in the beginning of this century, tuberculosis "turned" in full force and captures an increasing number of people .
- Only members of the antisocial strata of society are ill with tuberculosis.This is a wrong opinion!Of course, the biggest percentage of diagnosing tuberculosis falls on disadvantaged people, but they are in society, visit various establishments and use public transport! And for the infection with tuberculosis it is absolutely not necessary to be in front of a coughing sick person - the bacteria of the disease remain alive for several days.
- Tuberculosis can not be diagnosed at an early stage.But doctors say that this disease can be detected literally from the first days of development. Even the carriage of mycobacteria is determined by routine tests, so the doctor will find out the illness after the first visit of the patient to .The problem is that not all people with prolonged cough and fever are seeking qualified help.
- Tuberculosis is an incurable disease.And this is also a myth! Modern medicine offers several methods of treatment for patients, it is only necessary to select the scheme of therapy correctly and conduct it fully .In fact, the percentage of recovery is quite high.
Knowing the first signs of tuberculosis washes really to save lives.Of course, there are a lot of them and all of them differ in their characteristics, but to study and at least partially remember them all the same follows.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category