Klebsiella infection: symptoms and treatment
Klebsiella is a conditionally pathogenic microorganism that can cause various infectious diseases, including severe septic manifestations.The degree of severity of diseases depends on the state of the immune system of a particular person.Table of contents: Klebsiella - what is it? Causes of infection: Klebsiella infection: symptoms of infection. Diagnostic measures. Klebsiella treatment rules. Possible complications
Klebsiella - what is
Klebsiella is gram-negative rods at the biological level( that is, Gram stainingDoes not give a violet color), the size of this microorganism is 1x6 microns.Klebsiella form resembles a wand, they are completely immobile, can be arranged in pairs or alone, often built into a chain.
The considered conditionally pathogenic microorganism belongs to the class of facultative anaerobes.It is well known that these microorganisms multiply in the absence of oxygen, but even if there is a presence of this gas, their viability of Klebsiella is not lost.
In normal physiological conditions klebsiella is not something pathological, since this microorganism is a part of the microflora of the intestine and the whole digestive system.In addition, the conditionally pathogenic microorganism in question can be present in the mucosa of the respiratory tract and on the skin.Klebsiella's vitality remains in the soil, and in water, in dust and in food stored in the refrigerator.
Causes of infection
The source of the infection is a person already infected with a Klebsiella infection. In the intestines, the stick can get into the following cases:
- insufficient hygiene compliance;
- eating dirty fruits and vegetables;
- constantly dirty hands.
Food products are the most common factors of transmission, for example, fruits, dairy products, vegetables and meat products.
If the patient has pneumonia, then the infection of others will be carried out by airborne droplets. It is believed that susceptibility to infection is general, but doctors identify a certain risk group, which includes:
- patients who are in the recovery period after organ and / or tissue transplant;
- patients with diagnosed oncological diseases, blood pathologies and / or diabetes mellitus;
- people with alcoholism;
- elderly people with existing immunodeficiency;
- children of the newborn and infants.
If the Klebsiella is in the human intestine, then it produces endotoxin, as a result of which the microorganism under consideration is destroyed.It is this mechanism that is the cause of the reaction of an infectious-toxic type.
In addition to endotoxin, Klebsiella is able to produce a thermostable enterotoxin and membrane toxin.The first toxin leads to damage to the intestinal mucosa, which is manifested by a liquid watery stool.A membranotoxin has a high hemolytic activity - it affects directly the cells of the intestine.
Infection with klebsiella: symptoms of infection
After the infection has entered the human body, the incubation period begins, its duration can be a period of several hours and several days.As soon as the incubation period ends, the klebsiella manifests itself as expressed symptoms, which will vary depending on the localization of the microorganisms.
If klebsiella hit the lungs, then Klebsiella pneumonia develops. It will exhibit the following symptoms:
- chills, increased weakness and sweating;
- body temperature increase, possibly up to 39 degrees;
- cough of a dry nature, after a short time appears sputum purulent character with blood impurities( for such a sputum will be characteristic of an extremely unpleasant smell);
- dyspnea, strong enough;
- when listening to the lungs is determined by the weakening of breathing from the side of the inflammatory process;
- when tapping determine wet or dry rattles, dullness of percussion sound;
- radiography will show a tendency to merge infiltration sites.
Note: if the treatment of Klebsiella infection was timely and correctly, the chances of recovery are maximal.If there is no treatment, then the infection spreads and sepsis develops - a dangerous state for a person's life.
If the Klebsiella infects the upper respiratory tract and the nasal mucosa, then the following symptoms will be present:
- Formation of rhinoscleroma.Granulomas are formed on the membrane of the upper respiratory tract and nose, microorganisms are localized in them, which provokes abundant discharge from the nose of mucopurulent nature and with a specific odor, nasal congestion.
- Development of chronic diseases of the trachea and nasopharynx.They are characterized by secretions of purulent secretion from the nose with a fetid odor, the formation of crusts on the surface of the mucous membrane, a throat rash and a strong cough with sputum discharge.
Symptoms in case of defeat of the examined conditionally pathogenic microorganism of the gastrointestinal tract:
- abdominal pain, nausea, heartburn, significant decrease in appetite;
- development of acute enterocolitis if the intestine is affected;
- increased body temperature;
- liquid stool;
- presence in feces of blood, mucus;
- fetid smell of stool.
If the Klebsiella is "located" in the urine, then this will be manifested by the following symptoms of :
- irritability that the patient can not control;
- development of pyelonephritis;
- development of cystitis;
- appears signs of an inflammatory process in the prostate gland.
If a person has symptoms of Klebsiella, the doctor will send him to the examination.First, an anamnesis will be collected, then laboratory studies will be conducted.Such a survey will help to detect the conditionally pathogenic microorganisms in feces, sputum, urine, oral cavity, cerebrospinal fluid, bile.Which specific biological material will be selected for the study depends on the symptoms present, since they will make it clear where the Klebsiella are most likely located.
Test methods used for diagnostics:
- seeding material on nutrient media;
- bacterioscopy( Gram staining);
- serological methods;
Treatment rules for Klebsiella
Therapeutic tactics depends on how the disease manifests itself, how tightly the process is tightened.If the klebsiella was affected by the intestine, but the infection proceeds in a mild form, the treatment will be performed on an outpatient basis and using bacteriophages and probiotics.
Rules for treating Klebsiella with bacteriophages:
- Drugs are taken 3 times daily before meals;
- for children from zero to 6 months, the single dose is 5 milliliters;
- for children from 6 to 12 months single dose - 10 ml;
- for children aged 1-3 years single dose - 15 ml;
- for children aged 3-7 years, single dose - 20 ml;
- for children from 8 years and all adults single dose - 30 ml.
In the treatment of the infection in question, probiotics such as Bifiform, Linex, Probiophore, Acipol, Beefilong, Biovestin, Bifidumbacterin and others are used.The course of taking such medications should last at least 10 days, and the optimal course of treatment is 14-21 days.
Please note: dosage of probiotics is selected in strictly individual order!
If other systems are affected by klebsiella, or if the infection is severe, the patient is treated in a hospital setting.The period of the disease, which is accompanied by fever and fever, involves the appointment of bed rest, a special diet and a plentiful drink.In some cases, for klebsiella infections, patients may receive etiotropic therapy, which involves the use of antibacterial drugs - tetracyclines, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and in some cases, prescribe fluoroquinolones.
Treatment of Klebsiella can be supplemented with pathogenetic therapy, which will reduce febrile syndrome, intoxication and act as a preventive agent in relation to the development of complications.
If the infection is severe and pneumonia or sepsis is diagnosed, the following complications may develop:
- hemorrhagic syndrome;
- infectious-toxic shock;
- cerebral edema;
- pulmonary edema.
After the transferred klebsiella, immunity is greatly weakened, so that a relapse of the disease may occur.
The considered conditionally pathogenic microorganism is rather cunning, and it is necessary to exert maximum efforts to avoid the development of infection.And for this it is enough to observe the rules of personal hygiene, to eat only washed vegetables and fruits.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category