Microbiologists number more than twenty types of staphylococci.Some of them are representatives of the natural flora of man, others are capable of causing the development of diseases.So what kinds of staphylococcus represent a danger to humans and what to do if this microorganism is detected laboratory?Table of contents: Staphylococcus species Causes of staphylococcal infection Staphylococcal diseases
Staphylococcus refers to cocci - globular bacteria.From Greek "stafilo" is translated as grapes.This name for a microorganism is not chosen by chance.The thing is that the bacteria are grouped together, in a microscope it looks like a bunch of grapes.
With a staphylococcus a person to get acquainted already in infancy.So, literally from the first days of life, this microorganism begins to actively colonize the skin, mucous membranes, as well as the intestine.Staphylococcus is usually considered a conditionally pathogenic microorganism, that is, one with which a person is able to coexist peacefully, but which under certain circumstances can cause diseases.
In humans, the development of diseases caused by these types of bacteria:
- Staphylococcus aureus - the most pathogenic for humans, can cause the development of purulent-inflammatory processes in almost all organs;
- Epidermal staphylococcus - located on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes, can cause the development of endocarditis, sepsis, purulent infection of wounds, urinary tract;
- Saprophytic staphylococcus - located on the surface of the external genitalia, the mucous membrane of the urethra, is able to cause the development of urethritis and cystitis;
- Hemolytic staphylococcus - is the cause of sepsis, endocarditis, urinary tract infections, skin lesions.
Causes of staphylococcal infection
Staphylococcal diseases develop when the bacterium enters the body( into the blood, respiratory tract, digestive organs).
Allocate such transmission mechanisms:
- Contact-household ( in contact with infected staphylococcus aids);
- Airborne aerosol ( by inhalation of air released from a sick person or bacterium carrier by coughing, sneezing);
- The alimentary mechanism of ( when eating food, contaminated with staphylococcus);
- The official mechanism of ( through infected medical instruments during diagnostic procedures and operations).
In order for conditionally pathogenic staphylococci to be pathogenic, certain conditions are needed, for example, reduced immunity, chronic debilitating diseases, hypovitaminosis, stress, chronic fatigue, etc.It is known that staphylococcal infection often develops against the background of the SARS.
Diseases caused by staphylococcus
The state of the body's immune system and the characteristics of the bacterium itself determines the outcome of staphylococcus aureus.So, if the bacterium gets through the lesions on the skin and the protective mechanisms can localize the process, then the disease is limited to local purulent inflammation.If the immune system does not cope - the microorganism from the source migrates by a current of blood and can get into any organ with development of the inflammatory process in it.
Staphylococcus can cause a large number of diseases. Most often it leads to development:
- Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue( staphylodermia, abscesses, phlegmon);
- Burn-like skin syndrome;
- Breathing disorders;
- Disorders of urinary organs;
- Meningitis, brain abscess;
- Staphylococcal angina;
- Toxic shock syndrome;
- Lesions of bones, joints( osteomyelitis, arthritis);
- Dietary food poisoning;
In the population, a large percentage of people are carriers of staphylococcus aureus.Favorite places of the bacteria are the nasal mucosa and the .If there is a decrease in local immunity - develop rhinitis and pharyngitis, depending on the location of the bacteria.Ill people with staphylococcal rhinitis or pharyngitis can also communicate with sick people or bacteria carriers.
In favor of rhinitis is evidence of difficulty in nasal breathing, changes in the voice timbre, the appearance of a cold.When a staphilococcus enters the adnexal sinuses, sinusitis develops.With sinusitis, the secreted secret from the nose becomes yellow-green and dense.A person may be bothered by diffuse headaches or localized from the side of the affected sinus.With pharyngitis, there are complaints of perspiration in the throat, pain when swallowing, and dry cough.
Especially dangerous is the entry of staphylococcus into the lungs of .Among all cases of pneumonia, 10% falls precisely on staphylococcal pneumonia.They can be primary, but still develop more often against the background of viral infections.It should be noted that Staphylococcus aureus is rarely the cause of community-acquired pneumonia, but often - nosocomial.The development of pneumonia is signaled by severe weakness, high fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, cough with purulent sputum, cyanosis.Staphylococcal pneumonia is characterized by a more severe course, as well as a tendency to purulent complications: abscess, empyema.
Staphylococcal skin lesions can be localized in the form of staphylodermia or common. Staphylodermia is a purulent skin lesion that arose in response to the introduction of staphylococcus aureus. To staphylodermia include:
- Folliculitis - inflammation in the mouth of the hair follicle, accompanied by the formation of pustules( abscess);
- Furuncle - inflammation of the hair follicle, as well as surrounding connective tissue with the formation of a painful pustule;
- Carbuncle - inflammation of a group of hair follicles, as well as the surrounding connective tissue;
- Hydradenitis is a purulent-inflammatory process located in the sweat glands with the formation of a painful infiltrate.
The common skin lesion is manifested as a staphylococcal burn-like syndrome( exfoliative dermatitis).Most often, newborns suffer, as well as children under five years of age, adults rarely get sick.The disease in newborns begins suddenly with redness of the skin, the appearance of flies, cracks, followed by peeling.In the place of opening large bubbles bare skin of the skin, resembles burned.
Toxic shock syndrome
This syndrome was first reported at the end of the 20th century when outbreaks were detected among young women with menstruation, in which laboratory staphylococcus aureus was found in the vagina and cervix.The onset of this syndrome was triggered by the use of hyperabsorbent tampons.With the prolonged finding of such a tampon in the vagina, optimal conditions are created for the reproduction of staphylococcus and the synthesis of toxin to them.With the termination of the sale of such tampons in the United States, the number of patients with this disease has significantly decreased.
The main manifestations of the toxic shock syndrome are:
- Reddening of the skin in the form of spots, macular-papular or spot rash;
- Redness of the tongue;
- Redness of the conjunctiva;
- Reduction of blood pressure;
- Muscle and headache;
Infection can cause shock, kidney and liver failure.
Toxic shock syndrome, although rare, but still occurs today.Therefore, when a fever, rash occurs, women should immediately remove the tampon and consult a doctor.
SepsisRecommended to read:
This is the most severe and dangerous manifestation of staphylococcal infection.Most often observed in newborns and premature babies.Primary foci may be a variety of local staphylococcal diseases: tonsillitis, pneumonia, otitis, sinusitis, mastitis, in newborns omphalitis( inflammation of the navel).The disease is characterized by a significant daily fluctuation of body temperature from 37 to 40 degrees, chills, hemorrhagic rash, pale skin, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, lowering of blood pressure.At the same time there are metastatic foci of infection in various organs: meningitis, brain abscess, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, etc.Sepsis is a dangerous condition and requires active treatment.
Staphylococcus is the second most frequent cause of endocarditis.Often, the disease develops in the elderly, as well as weakened people.Endocarditis develops sharply with a strong rise in body temperature.At the inspection it is possible to establish a progressive insufficiency of valves, and also heart murmurs.There may be abscesses of the myocardium and valve ring.The disease is often accompanied by a heart attack.Staphylococcal endocarditis is also affected by people with valve prostheses.Infection with staphylococcus( mostly epidermal) occurs often even during surgery to establish a valvular prosthesis, but clinical symptoms may appear even after a year.
Foodborne toxicologyWe recommend reading:
The disease develops when eating food contaminated with staphylococcus aureus.Bacteria actively multiplies in confectionery creams, salads, meat products.The microorganism gets into food products as a result of the use of contaminated kitchen utensils, implements, and also with the hands of the cooks.From the pustules on the hands of the cook, staphylococcus enters the food, where it actively multiplies and becomes the cause of food poisoning in the future.
The incubation period is short.A few hours after consuming the infected product, a person suddenly has multiple vomiting, weakness, dizziness, severe epigastric pain, diarrhea may join.The disease usually ends after a couple of days of full recovery.
Principles of treatmentWe recommend to read:
In the laboratory detection of staphylococcus a person immediately begins to sound an alarm, than to treat what to do?Detection of the bacterium without concomitant symptoms of the disease is not the reason for the appointment of antibacterial agents.
With mild forms of localized staphylococcal disease, symptomatic treatment is usually sufficient.For moderate, severe forms, antibiotics( penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, aminoglycosides), as well as specific anti-staphylococcal agents, are used.
Staphylococcus is a bacterium that evolutionarily developed resistance to many antibacterial agents, so you can not experiment and select an antibiotic yourself.It is only the doctor who can prescribe the medicine, it is optimal to pre-produce an antibioticogram to determine the sensitivity of staphylococcus to specific drugs.
Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer