Vaccination against hepatitis B: timing of vaccination, indications, complications
Hepatitis B is a serious viral disease of the liver that is transmitted through blood and sex. A particularly unfavorable prognosis are the chronic forms of this ailment - a prolonged inflammatory process leads to the replacement of hepatocytes with connective tissue( this pathology is called cirrhosis), organ dysfunction, and in some cases even the degeneration of normal hepatic cells into malignant cells.
But with all its severity and the danger of consequences, viral hepatitis B has one big advantage over other types of hepatitis transmitted parenterally( for example, before hepatitis C) - this is the availability of a vaccine to prevent the disease. Properly administered immunization gives almost a 100% guarantee that the vaccinated person will not get sick.Table of contents: Who needs hepatitis B vaccine Should he be vaccinated against hepatitis B to a newborn child? When to get hepatitis B vaccinations? Contraindications? Complications after hepatitis B vaccination? How to prepare for hepatitis B vaccination?
Who needs hepatitis B vaccine
It is not so difficult to get infected with the hepatitis B virus.This disease is not the lot of drug addicts, women of easy virtue and representatives of non-traditional sexual orientation, as many people believe. A child, an elderly person, an adherent of a healthy lifestyle, a successful businessman, a teacher, a doctor - in general, any person who has had contact with the blood of a patient with hepatitis or a carrier of a dangerous virus, can become a hepatitis B. Such contact can occur in the dental office, tattoo parlor, manicure, pedicure, piercing, as well as in a medical institution during medical and diagnostic manipulations.
And if you can refuse from the manicure, tattooing, piercing, no one is insured from going to the dentist, surgical interventions, blood transfusion. Therefore, every sensible person should be vaccinated against hepatitis B and be sure to vaccinate their children.
If we talk about absolute indications for vaccination against hepatitis B, then it is necessary for the following population groups:
- Close to sick hepatitis B and carriers of the virus - spouses, children, parents.Infection can occur during sexual contact, as well as in everyday life when sharing shaving, manicure accessories, a toothbrush.
- To homosexuals.
- Injection addicts.
- To people suffering from diseases in which hemodialysis or blood transfusion is vital.
- For medical professionals.
- Patient with other viral hepatitis and severe liver diseases.Infection with another type of hepatitis can aggravate the course of these diseases.
- To persons indiscriminate in sexual relations.
- For children of mothers infected with hepatitis B or carriers of the virus.
Should I get a hepatitis B vaccine for a newborn child
This question bothers many newly minted parents.Some moms are afraid that the body of their newborn baby is still too weak, so complications after vaccination may develop, problems with the liver will arise.Other parents simply do not understand the connection between their innocent baby and such a dangerous disease as hepatitis B. We'll figure it out in all these issues.
Vaccines for children and adult vaccines do not affect the liver status in any way and cause its dysfunction. There are no living or dead viruses in vaccine preparations, but only parts of the virion shell with antigens, to which the immune system subsequently produces antibodies.Vaccinations from hepatitis B are very easily transferred, so soon after the injection, both the baby and mom forget that there was a vaccination.
With regard to the relationship between the newborn baby and the risk of contracting hepatitis B, it is surprising to the parents. Every child in the first months of his life undergoes a lot of medical manipulation, even if absolutely healthy. In case of occurrence of any problems operative intervention can be required, and the risk of infection with hepatitis will grow at times.In addition, a child can become infected with this dangerous illness in the home, as one can never be sure that the loved ones are not sick( he is often recognized for hepatitis B when the experience of an ailment is several years old).
Another important point to consider is the features of the course of viral hepatitis B in children. If a child gets sick with this ailment in infancy, almost always the pathological process in the liver becomes chronic( the immune system is simply not ready to adequately combat the infection). And already to adolescence, a child can develop such dangerous complications of hepatitis as cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Therefore, do not delay the vaccine and, together with her, protect against hepatitis B for later.Parents should understand that vaccinating a baby in early childhood, they will provide him with immunity to hepatitis B virus for at least the next 10-15 years.
When to get vaccinated against hepatitis B
In Russia, hepatitis B vaccination is included in the national vaccination schedule.At the state expense, all children and persons at risk are vaccinated. The following immunization regimens are used:
For children, the figures in the schemes correspond to the age in months.If the vaccine is given to an adult or a child who is not vaccinated in the hospital, the date of the first dose of the vaccine is taken for 0, the second should be given in a month, and the third after five months( the second scheme in a month, and the fourth in 10 months afterThird).
The first scheme is used for routine vaccination of all children and adults, the second is considered urgent( accelerated) and is used when it is necessary to achieve sufficient immunity in the shortest possible time.In particular, according to this scheme, children are vaccinated in the maternity hospital if a mother is diagnosed with hepatitis B, or if she is a carrier of the hepatitis virus, takes drugs, or was not examined during pregnancy for markers of viral hepatitis.In addition, according to this scheme it is desirable to vaccinate children and adults who have a patient or a carrier of the hepatitis B virus in their families.
In order for the body to develop a long-term immunity to hepatitis B, a person must receive a minimum of three doses of the vaccine, so an unfinished vaccination course can not be considered effectivePrevention of the disease. Even if more than the due date has passed after the first or second vaccination, it is necessary to receive regular doses of the vaccine.To start immunization in a new way when the calendar of vaccinations is violated is not necessary.
Important: , information regarding the duration of preservation of postvaccinal immunity and the need for revaccination for hepatitis B is ambiguous.Numerous studies have shown that immunity after receiving all the prescribed doses of the vaccine lasts more than 20 years( possibly much longer, but vaccinations are done not so long ago, so it is difficult to determine).Many infectious disease and vaccine manufacturers in the annotations recommend that revaccination be carried out every 5-10 years to those who have an increased risk of infection.The Russian national vaccination calendar does not regulate the revaccination for hepatitis B, so all questions regarding revaccination are best resolved with your doctor.
Absolute contraindications for vaccination against hepatitis B are as follows:
- allergy to vaccine components( eg yeast);
- is a severe allergic reaction to the previous administration of the vaccine.
Regarding temporary contraindications( when vaccination is not abolished but postponed), they are referred to:
- severe condition of the newborn;
- any acute disease;
- exacerbation of chronic illness
In these situations, the vaccine is given after the normalization of the condition of the child or adult.
Are not contraindications for carrying out vaccination against hepatitis B :
- Physiological jaundice of newborns.
- Pregnancy( a woman planning to conceive should make all necessary vaccinations in advance, but if there is a high risk of infection, vaccination against hepatitis B can not be postponed until the birth).
- HIV infection.
Complications after hepatitis B vaccination
Adverse reactions after administration of the hepatitis vaccine B are rare, and mostly they are light:
- local pain;
- redness and slight swelling at the injection site;
- short-term temperature rise;
- weakness, malaise;
Allergic reactions are also possible, but the risk of their occurrence is minimal( amounts to hundredths of a percent).
How to prepare for a vaccination against hepatitis B
In some special training is not necessary. At the time of vaccination, a child or adult should be healthy. Adults can be vaccinated without prior medical examination( if there are no contraindications, and the doctor gave recommendations for vaccination), children can not be vaccinated without examination on the day of vaccination.
In a maternity hospital, newborn babies are vaccinated only after carrying out all necessary tests and medical examination. If a neonatologist sees that the child's condition is unsatisfactory, they will not be vaccinated.You can get vaccinated later in the clinic.
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist-doctor