Bronchitis in children: symptoms, causes, treatment at home
Bronchitis in children is diagnosed most often at the age of three to eight years.The disease is characterized by an inflammatory process of the bronchial mucosa, and the incidence rate in childhood is conditioned by the unformed breathing and immune system.In most cases, the disease proceeds acutely and develops against the background of infection of the respiratory tract with viruses.The main manifestations of the disease are pain in the sternum and dry cough.Contents: Types of the disease Causes of bronchitis in children Symptoms of bronchitis in children How is bronchitis diagnosed Methods of treating bronchitis in children Treatment of bronchitis in children with folk remedies Prevention measures
Types of the disease
There are several classifications of bronchitis in children.Depending on the origin, this ailment may be primary or secondary .In the first case, the disease develops directly in the bronchial tree and does not penetrate deeper.But secondary bronchitis in children already acts as a complication of some other pathology, for example, influenza or ARI.In this case, the spread of infection in the bronchi occurs from other parts of the respiratory system.
- acute - there is a fever, dry cough and shortness of breath in combination with a general increased fatigue and weakened body.The duration of the acute period is about two weeks.The disease begins, usually after the appearance of common signs of a viral infection( runny nose, sore throat, etc.);
- chronic - in childhood, the ailment considered in chronic course rarely changes, it is characterized by an erased clinical picture with periodic exacerbations;
- relapsing - the frequency of exacerbations is three or more relapses per year, with an average duration of one month.
In medical practice, separately consider bronchiolitis - acute inflammation of the bronchi in children under the age of one year.Bronchiolitis therapy should be started as soon as possible to avoid complications from the respiratory and other body systems of the baby. Important! Diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is made by a doctor if the child has two or three exacerbations per year during the two-year period.It should be borne in mind that even during periods of remission in children, cough may persist. If we consider the extent of the prevalence of the pathological process, the ailment can be divided into:
- limited - the inflammatory process does not spread beyond one segment of the lung.This form of the disease is considered the easiest due to the fact that the lesion affects the smallest area of the respiratory system;
- common - inflammation spans two or more parts of the bronchi;
- diffuse - the pathological process spreads almost to the entire area of the child's bronchi.
As with bronchitis in adults, this ailment in children can be classified, depending on its etiology.Inflammation of the bronchi provokes a variety of pathogens: bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc.Having determined which pathogenic microorganisms caused the pathology, the doctor should choose the medicamental treatment of bronchitis in children.Also in this classification includes bronchitis of allergic and irrational nature. According to the nature of the inflammatory process, which depends on the underlying cause of the disease, bronchitis is classified into:
- is catarrhal - the pathological process does not extend to the mucous membranes;
- hemorrhagic - hemorrhages occur in the bronchial mucosa;
- purulent - purulent sputum is secreted;
- necrotic - foci of necrotic tissue are found on the walls of the bronchi;
- ulcerative - on the bronchial mucosa there are characteristic ulceration;
- fibrous - deposits of fibrin are observed in the bronchi;
In childhood, bronchitis of the catarrhal and catarrhal-purulent type is most often diagnosed.It is very important to evaluate the permeability of the bronchial tree during diagnostic activities.If there is a narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory tract and signs of respiratory failure, it is a question of the so-called obstructive bronchitis.In other cases, a simple form of the disease is diagnosed. Please note! When examining a child, it is extremely important to correctly recognize all characteristics of the disease and to reveal its exact form, as this will determine the further treatment tactics and the choice of medications.Recommended:
Causes of bronchitis in children
The causes of bronchitis in children are very numerous. The following are generally considered as the main ones:
- viral infections - the virus becomes the cause of bronchitis in children in more than 50% of incidences.It first enters the upper respiratory tract, and then penetrates further, provoking the inflammatory process on the bronchial mucosa;
- bacterial infections - the pathogen can penetrate the respiratory tract together with some foreign object that the child puts into the mouth;
- allergic reactions - a permanent inflammatory process in children prone to allergies may well lead to bronchitis or bronchial asthma;
- inhalation of chemical vapors can also provoke the development of mucosal inflammation;
- congenital abnormalities of the infant's respiratory system;
- untreated viral and catarrhal diseases;
- extensive helminthic invasions.
In addition, an increased risk of developing bronchitis exists in those children who are susceptible to secondhand smoke, attend schools and preschools, and often have to stay in damp and cold rooms.
Symptoms of bronchitis in children
Acute bronchitis usually begins with typical signs of a viral infection.These include sore in the oropharynx, rhinitis, lacrimation, coughing, hoarseness.Then a dry cough becomes more obtrusive.After about five to seven days, the character of the cough changes to softer, sputum is sometimes observed with impurities of pus.The color of the sputum can be white or green, often it has an unpleasant smell.The temperature at the child can rise to a mark of 38.5 degrees and persist for three to ten days, depending on the form of the disease. At this time, you can note the characteristic signs of body intoxication:
- general poor health,
- increased sweating,
- soreness in the sternum,
With a competent approach to treatment, recovery usually comes in two weeks.Children under the age of one year may develop acute bronchiolitis, accompanied by fever, signs of intoxication and respiratory failure.In the second-third year of life, there is often an obstructive form of bronchitis.Its leading sign is bronchial obstruction with paroxysmal cough, remote wheezing, wheezing.The body temperature can be kept normal.The allergic form of bronchitis in children is most often characterized by a recurrent course.At exacerbations the child has an increased sweating, a cough with mucous sputum, the temperature does not increase.Often this type of bronchitis occurs along with allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, etc.As for the chronic form of the disease in question, it is relatively infrequent in young children.It can be suspected by periodic exacerbations( twice or thrice a year), which are accompanied by a characteristic symptomatic for the acute form of the disease.Recurrent bronchitis is considered an intermediate form.
How bronchitis is diagnosed
When diagnosing bronchitis in children, the following are used to confirm the diagnosis:
- laboratory sputum analysis( PCR, bacteriological culture, microscopic analysis, etc.);
- general and biochemical blood test;
- study of smears from the larynx and nasopharynx;
- X-ray examination of the lungs;
- bronchography and bronchoscopy;
- spirography of the lungs.
Bronchitis must be properly differentiated from other diseases that may have a similar clinical picture.These include bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, tuberculosis and other pathological conditions.
Methods of treatment of bronchitis in children
Acute bronchitis often does not require hospitalization of the child, but its treatment must be carried out under medical supervision.Staying in the hospital can be recommended for young children under the age of one year, because they can rapidly develop respiratory failure. Treatment of bronchitis in children under all medical recommendations takes about two to three weeks and includes:
- Compliance with bed rest on the first day of the disease.Staying in bed is recommended until the child does not feel good, and the temperature of his body will not return to normal.
- Compliance with a special diet with light foods with a predominance of dairy products, fruits and vegetables.In the absence of appetite, the child should not be forced to forcibly.It is also important to provide a plentiful drink.
- With bronchitis of a viral nature, a pediatrician can prescribe rinsing of the throat with medicinal or herbal solutions to reduce the inflammatory process.
- The use of expectorants that help to facilitate the departure of sputum.
- Inhalations - today nebulizers are widely used in the treatment of cough and bronchitis in children;
- Purpose of warming compresses and ointments on the chest area, without affecting the heart area. Rinsing with warming compounds is not allowed in obstructive type of disease.
- Vibrating massage, helping to effectively clean alveoli and bronchi.
- Antipyretic drugs - their doctor appoints as needed.
- If the nasal congestion is obstructed, the pediatrician can prescribe funds for washing the nasal passages.Vesicoureter drugs for young children are not prescribed, such drops can be prescribed to a child older than three years, but they can not be used for more than three days.
Doctors try to prescribe antitussives to children with bronchitis only in extreme cases, since such drugs have an overwhelming effect on the activity of the cough center in the brain and, thereby, increase the duration of treatment.Codeine-containing drugs are prescribed only with a painful cough. Important! Children under the age of one year can not give expectorant medications!Any auxiliary medication is allowed to be used only on the recommendation of the attending physician. In some cases, the attending physician may find it advisable to prescribe antibiotics to the child.Such drugs are effective for complicated bronchitis.Indications for the appointment of antibiotics can serve as a general weakening of the immune system, purulent sputum.As for inhalation with bronchitis in children, it is possible to do such procedures only with the permission of a doctor.It is very convenient to use modern ultrasonic and compressor devices - nebulizers for inhalations.If it is absent, you can make regular steam inhalations.Inhalation therapy helps in diluting the secreted secretion and moistening the mucosa.Note! The use of inhalations is unacceptable in purulent inflammatory processes, since warming will promote even more active propagation of pathogenic microorganisms .More detailed information on inhalations for children you will get by viewing this video review:
At the discretion of the attending physician, children with bronchitis may receive physiotherapeutic treatment.Such physiotherapeutic procedures as UV-therapy, paraffin and mud applications on the sternum, inductometry, electrophoresis and others will speed up the healing process, since they have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect.However, it should be borne in mind that the course of physiotherapy can be held no more than twice a year.
Treatment of bronchitis in children with folk remedies
Effective folk remedies can be used as an auxiliary method for the therapy of bronchitis, but only if this is done by the attending physician.The fact is that young children are often prone to allergic reactions, and some drugs can not be used in certain forms of bronchitis. The following time-proven methods of are most effective:
- The child can regularly give warm milk with honey with a piece of butter.Such a drink will help with dry cough.
- At night rub the baby's legs with a warming ointment, after which it is warm to wrap them.
- Carry out steam inhalations with a decoction of chamomile or other medicinal herbs.
- If there are no contraindications, you can use mustard plasters.For young children they are put on a diaper, children do not need to wear a diaper over three years old, but mustard plaster should be put back.Categorically, do not put mustard on the chest in the heart.
- Efficient for bronchitis is the juice of radish or turnip with honey, which should be given to the child several times a day for one teaspoon.
- As an alternative to the previous recipe, you can taste cranberry juice mixed with honey in a ratio of 3 to 1. The drug gives the child three times a day, one spoonful.
Prevention of bronchitis in children is to prevent viral infections and timely treatment.Preventive vaccination against influenza and pneumococcal infection will help to avoid infection.It is impossible to supercool the child and his contact with allergens.The most important role in the issue of prevention is strengthening immunity.Increase the protective forces of the body will help hardening, as well as the reception of vitamin complexes, which will select a pediatrician.Children with recurrent bronchitis need anti-relapse treatment in the autumn-winter period.Pediatrician, doctor Komarovsky tells about symptoms, diagnosis and effective methods of treating bronchitis in children:
Chumachenko Olga, pediatrician