Pedagogical complementary feeding for breastfeeding: table and recommendations
When it comes time to introduce the baby to adult food, each parent seeks to choose the best option for his child and the way of complementary feeding.Contents: The essence of pedagogical complementary The advantages and disadvantages of pedagogical complementary feeding When to start feeding a baby The technique of introducing pedagogical complementary foods The stages of pedagogical complementary feeding Pedagogical complementary feeding and allergic reaction List of rules to be followed when teaching lure
There are two types of complementary foods that are beautifulAdapted for babies:
- Pediatric complementary feeding is the introduction of a separate prigtovlennyh for baby nutrition products under the special scheme.In this case, all the dishes offered by the kid, carefully ground into a homogeneous purée.
- Pedagogical lure or entrepre - is the introduction of complementary feeding to the child with microdoses( doses that are placed between the thumb and forefinger of the mother) from the mother's plate.The main task of this complementary food is acquaintance of the child with the food that is used in his family, that is, the baby is fed not separately cooked food, but as they say with a common "Kazanka". In this day lactation are not canceled.
Often children who are breastfed for a long time refuse to eat anything other than mother's milk.As many moms, it is through predprikorma obtained successfully cope with this problem.
The essence of pedagogical complementary feeding
The concept of "enterprise feed - nutrition as education" came up with the center of children's education "Rozhana".This technique has this name because its purpose is not to satisfy the child's hunger, but to give him the opportunity to learn the rules of behavior at the table, learn how to chew and use the cutlery .In the process of introducing predprikorma child realizes that food can be extracted not only from the mother's breast.
When introducing pedagogical complementary foods, parents are obliged to induce the baby's food interest, which, as a rule, is based on the desire to imitate his parents, and not at all on a feeling of hunger.
Basic conditions for introducing pedagogical complementary feeding:
- The child should be breastfeeding.It is assumed that the enzymes that come from breast milk, containing information about foods eaten, help support children's gastrointestinal tract, since both mother and child eat the same thing;
- The nutrition of the whole family should be correct and varied: different smoked foods and other unhealthy foods should be completely excluded from the family ration.
Advantages and disadvantages of pedagogical complementary feeding
The advantages of the enterprise are as follows:
- The child has the opportunity, choosing only his desire and taste preferences, to choose products from the table.With this approach, the kid is not imposed on a certain kind of food, as is the case with pediatric system.
- From the earliest age a child attends family traditions, learns to eat and use cutlery.
- The introductory introduction helps to quickly assimilate the chewing skills of the child.
- Children who are fed on the pedagogical system, almost never have problems with appetite.
- A child gets acquainted with new food without sacrificing breastfeeding.
- There is no need to waste time and money on organizing a separate food for the baby, because he eats what his parents do.
It should be noted that the pedagogical system also has its drawbacks:
- The absence at the moment of any scientific justification for this technique.Supporters of the so-called concept of "natural parenting," of which the enterprise is a part, usually refer to the centuries-old experience of ancestors who did not feed their babies with separately prepared food, but fed them from a common table.
- At first, when a child only gets used to solid food, it can be choked with its slices.
- The complexity of determining the source of allergy or stool disorder, because at one meal a child consumes several different foods at once.
- The need to review the family diet.Since a child must have access to all the food on the table during a family meal, parents should give up smoked, spicy and fatty foods, as well as from semi-finished products.For most families, this is the decisive factor.
When to start feeding a baby
A few years ago, the lure was introduced from 3-4 months of age of the child.Today, the World Health Organization( WHO) recommends starting the introduction of complementary feeding to children who are breastfeeding, not earlier than 6 months, because in the first half of the mother's milk, due to its nutritional properties, completely satisfies all the needs of the baby.In addition, the enzyme system and the food interest of the child also matures only by the half-year.
It should be noted that in nature everything is wisely arranged, and the human child, as in principle and the cub of any other mammal, when ready to digest new food, always gives the appropriate signals to his parents.
It is possible to make sure of the child's readiness for introducing complementary foods as follows:
- The kid is confidently seated.
- The ejecting reflex is extinguished.
- The child's weight is twice the weight at birth( for premature babies this figure should be slightly higher).
- Knows how to turn the head, and if necessary turn away from the disliked food.
- A "food interest" has appeared: the child reaches out to the plate of his mother to take food from her and put it in his mouth.
To determine that the child has a "food interest", and not just curiosity, you can by the following behavior.During a family meal, the baby reaches for food, which is appetizingly absorbed by adults .He is not interested in other items on the table: no napkins, no tableware, no litter under the hot.And if a child tries to give something to the handles for comfort, then he angrily throws out the object given to him and continues to procure food.This behavior of the baby is repeated every time it gets with the adults at the table, acquiring a stable character.
Please note! The emergence of "food interest" is due to the presence of digestive enzymes that are already ripened in the baby's gastrointestinal tract, which signal to the brain about their willingness to work.In turn, the brain, responding to incoming signals, produces appropriate reactions, "pushing" the child to conquer a new more complex meal.
It is worth noting that the presence of "food interest" guarantees a good appetite and a healthy attitude to food for life as long as a little man.Therefore, in no case should you force the child to eat and try to feed him if he does not want it and does not ask the himself.In this process, the initiative must come entirely from the baby: he must be an active participant in complementary feeding.If the child's gastrointestinal tract is quite ready to digest adult food, but there is still no food interest as such, then it's worthwhile to wait until the introduction of complementary foods.
When to not start the introduction of complementary foods:
- The child or mother is sick.At such a time, it is much more important to breastfeed the baby with mother's milk, which will help to ensure the baby's antiviral protection.
- Moving or changing the situation.To adapt to a new place the child should be allocated at least two weeks.
- Mother's exit from maternity leave.
- The emergence of a new person in the life of a child( for example, nannies).
- Active teething.
- Stressful situation in the family, which can provoke repair, divorce of parents, etc.
Technique for the introduction of pedagogical complementary foods
Pedagogical complementary feeding has no effect on breastfeeding: it is absolutely parallel process, supplementing the main food .It should be noted that in the child's mind these concepts are also clearly separated.For example, he realizes that not 50 grams of curd mass will help him sleep, but sucking in his mother's breast.But when he saw a delicious banana, which he usually watches once a week, the baby will certainly be drawn to a tempting fruit, not to his mother's breast, to which he has round-the-clock access.
As a rule, the entire complementary cycle takes about a year, during which the child must try the food that he will be dealing with throughout his life.The Kid gets acquainted with the products and studies them:
- for consistency and temperature;
- a variety of taste qualities, sizes and shapes;
- methods of preparation and use;
- seasonality and so on.
It's important to know! If during the period of supplementary feeding, for some reason, the child was unable to try some products, then in the future, he may refuse to take them to a certain age, or still have them, but reluctantly.
Therefore, it is necessary to initially introduce the baby to the ecological and social niche in the field of nutrition, to which belongs his family.
The food offered to a child may be of different consistency, but it should not be specifically puréed.Pre-Adoption means acquaintance of the kid with food through microdoses( microprojects) of products, which stimulates him to successfully master the skills of chewing and swallowing already in the first months of introducing complementary foods. In addition, in the process of getting acquainted with food, the child learns independence, which is important to encourage:
- , he can take the handles of the food he offers to him and send it to himself;
- he is trying to "wield" a spoon;
- learns to hold a cup and drink from it.
The task of parents is only to ensure that the child's movements are correct and, if necessary, help him, but in no case try to feed him.This process should not turn into a passive opening of the mouth before the next spoon of food offered by the mother.
A child can sit at the dinner table to get to know food with his mother up to 5-6 times a day.At one time the baby can be given no more than two or three microdoses.One dose of soft food should be placed between the pads of the thumb and index finger of the mother, or on the tip of a teaspoon.
Microdoses should be given as follows:
- Soft food:
- crumbly type( pasta, cereals, slices of bread, salad, etc.) - you can give crumbs to the baby right in the mouth or put on a plate to the babyI tried to grab them myself and send them to the "destination".
- puree - it should be smeared on a spoon and handed to her child.
- Solid food( drying, peeled fruit, crackers, etc.) should be offered to the baby under the watchful eye of adults! He can take them either from the table or from his mother's hands.If a child has bitten off a very large piece that is not commensurate with its chewing capacity, then it should be immediately removed from the baby's mouth, while showing complete tranquility and unflappable appearance.
- Drink should be offered to the child in a small cup with a wide neck not more than one teaspoon at a time.However, if the child asks for supplements - add another teaspoon of liquid.A toddler must learn from an early age to take a cup in his hand and to tilt his or her contents into his mouth.
- Soups and other first courses should be offered in several ways:
- let the baby explore / lick the spoon, having previously dipped it in the broth;
- we catch the contents of the broth and help the kid to bring the spoon to his mouth;
- learn to sip from a spoon.
It is important that the toddler keeps the spoon himself, and the mom only helps to control the handle! As a rule, self-scooping with a spoon becomes accessible to most children only after they master independent walking.
Stages of pedagogical complementary feeding
In general, the entrepreneurial process consists of three stages:
- The adaptation period is from the first to the eighth month of complementary feeding.
- The energy period is from the eighth to the fourteenth month of complementary feeding.
- The transition period is from the fourteenth month to the 3-year age of the child.
In the first, adaptive stage of , only the first acquaintances of the child with new food occur: first they are given microdoses with the size of 1-2 grains of rice, in a week - the microdose increases and can already be 1-2 peas, etc.By this principle, the baby is introduced to each individual dish.As a rule, for a month a child can try almost all the products from the mother's menu.Starting from the second month of complementary feeding, those products that have successfully passed the microprobe stage can be offered to the child in an increased dose - up to 1-2 teaspoons.As for new products( for example, seasonal vegetables or fruits), then we do all the adaptive work with them.On the day should give the baby no more than one new product, while any "sample" is given to drink with breast milk.Only in the event that during a week the baby's organism did not give any negative reactions - we increase the volume of the proposed product to 1-2 teaspoons.
It is very important that at the first stage the child during the meal is in the hands of the mother, and not in a separate place.This is due to a number of reasons:
- In the first stage, the child should have constant access to breast milk, which promotes the full assimilation of new food.
- The behavior of the baby during the meal takes place under close maternal control: when the mother needs to wipe the baby, give a new portion, help and teach the technique of eating, etc.
- The baby has an excellent overview: he has the opportunity to watch how the adult members of the family behave at the table, how they eat appetizingly, and try to imitate them, thereby learning the food rules.
- On the arms of the mother, the child feels like a full participant in the family meal, which gives him confidence in the actions and perfectly stimulates the food interest.
Since the second, energy phase of , the child begins to treat food as an energy source and a way to satisfy the feeling of hunger.In this period, the volume of consumed single product can be 2 tablespoons.If the child does not eat it, other dishes are offered in the same volume, and the baby himself chooses what he will satisfy hunger.At this stage, the child no longer drinks with breast milk, and his chair has a more formal character.
During the energy period, the toddler's parents:
- should try to maintain the food interest of the crumbs, and do not try to feed the baby if he does not ask himself;
- should not be fed from a spoon;
- should not offer food to it, or you can simply inform that you are going to sit down at the table for a meal.The child must determine his own state of health, and if he is hungry.
At the second stage of the introduction of pedagogical complementary foods, the child should already be given a separate place at the general table. It is possible to check its readiness for independence on the following grounds:
- The child has mastered the skills of handling everyday tableware( a plate, a cup, a spoon and a fork).
- Do not play with food and spit it out.
- Do not overturn and do not discard a plate with a cup from the table.
- Tries to gently spoon.
As a rule, children are ready to move to a separate place at the table already closer to the first birthday.
However, it should be remembered that one-year-olds are restless.Therefore, during this period, parents need special understanding and patience. A child can eat for about five minutes, and then lose interest in eating and run off on their own business;Through time to return and again to ask to eat.With this you do not need to fight, with time everything will pass and the child will learn all the rules of behavior at the table, but still it is not necessary to allow the child to leave the borders of the kitchen with a piece of food in hand.
At the third stage of the enterprise, the child completely switches to meals at a common table.In addition, the toddler:
- excellently manages cutlery;
- itself monitors cleanliness during meals;
- copes with drinking and eating without assistance;
- is still actively interested in food;
- has its own seat at the table.
The maximum duration of a meal can be from 10 to 15 minutes.
By the age of three, the child must learn everything that adult members of his family do when eating food.Imitating their behavior and movements, the kid learns:
- to eat the food that everyone in his family eats;
- correctly use cutlery and napkins;
- thank for the food and, if necessary, ask for an additive;
- clean dirty dishes, etc.
Pedagogical complementary feeding and allergic reaction
According to some reports, pedagogical complementary feeding is shown to children who are predisposed to allergies.
This is the so-called method of "learning to allergens", which allows you to adapt the baby's body to uncomfortable products. For a better understanding, consider this method for an example.If the child is allergic to apricot, you can boil him a compote in the ratio: one apricot for three liters of water;And offer his baby microdoses.Or the child is allergic to buckwheat, then you can give it no more than 1-2 grains.Thus, it turns out almost a homeopathic dose, which for the manifestation of allergy is not enough, but for the habituation of the organism - it is quite.
It is important to note that the reddened cheeks that appeared during the introduction of complementary foods are not an alarm signal.It is not customary to pay attention to such manifestations, and you can continue to feed the baby. This behavior is explained by the fact that the baby's body is very sensitive, so cheeks can react with redness to anything.
The body's alarms include:
- appearance of crimson spots instead of the usual blush;
- extensive rash;
- diathesis of a wetting type;
If these symptoms appear, remove foods that have a high allergenic potential from the infant's diet, but the lure does not stop.If, however, two weeks after the introduction of a hypoallergenic diet, the symptoms do not go away or worse, the lure should be completely canceled.
List of rules to be followed when teaching the lure
- The child should eat with the whole family at a shared table.
- Control over how the kid behaves in the kitchen and at the table is performed by the mother, she also sets the rules.No other member of the family should interfere.
- Adults should not try to persuade a child to eat or give him more food.Their task is just to eat appetizingly, while not focusing on the smallest participant in the meal.
- Breast milk should be available for the child at all times.Mom can apply the baby without stopping from the meal.
- The child is not played with food or cutlery.If the baby has lost interest in food, he should just be carried away from the table.
- Food for crumbs is not prepared separately and especially not specially rubbed in puree.
- If after the baby were left pieces of food, their mother silently eats, thereby demonstrating the value of food.Products with the baby should not be thrown away.
- The volume of food eaten increases gradually and very slowly, focusing on the needs of the baby.
- There should not be any toys or other distractions at the table.The same goes for various fairy tales and dances in the process of feeding!The child must himself ask for food!If not interesting there, then he goes to play in the room.
- Food should not be freely available to the baby, he can only get it from his mother.
- The child is not fed from a spoon, he must himself master the cutlery.
- The dining table should be covered in such a way that it is convenient for the mother with the baby sitting on her arms to get everything that is needed.
- If the kid behaves badly at the table: he is capricious, disturbs or makes noise, he is not persuaded to behave quietly, but solve the problem by expelling from the table.In this case, all present should treat this action of the mother with understanding and do not interfere( not to regret, not to comment, etc.).
- They get up from the table only when the meal is over or on a very important matter.It is not recommended especially with a very small child to even answer a phone call.If the baby has eaten before the mother ate, then it should be taken out from behind the table and come back - calmly and leisurely finish eating, thereby demonstrating the value and importance of food!
- Important!The whole family should eat in one place, preferably, that this place was a dining table.If someone from family members eat on a stool in front of a television, it is useless to explain to the child that he should munch drying only in the kitchen, sitting on a chair.
- We accustom the baby to the rules of personal hygiene since early childhood: always my hands before and after eating!
- A child, like any other member of the family, is not allowed to dig into other people's plates.
- So that the child does not mess around the table, we never abuse him, but quietly correct his mistakes.
- We keep clean for food.If something is spilled or stained, immediately wipe it with a cloth or a napkin.If desired, the child can also be attached to the process of wiping.
Tokareva Larissa, pediatrician