Ascarids in adults and children: symptoms, treatment, prevention
Jun 20, 2018
Ascarids are helminths that parasitize the human intestine, as well as in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, the brain, the nasopharynx, respiratory organs and the heart.These helminths parasitize both in the adult human body and in the child's body.Their presence can be expressed by various symptoms, although in some cases it can also be asymptomatic.
Roundworms are considered quite large worms: adult individuals reach a length of 15-20 cm in length, and females are even larger - up to 40 cm in length.Its appearance is quite characteristic - white and pink, the shape of the worms is fusiform.Most often, ascaridosis affects children, but in adults this diagnosis is made much less often.This is due to the fact that children seldom adhere to the rules of hygiene, and in fact infection with ascarids is carried out for the most part precisely through unwashed hands.Table of Contents: Causes of Ascaridosis Symptoms of Ascaris in Adults and Children
Causes of Ascaridosis
Larvae of helminths are found in human feces that perfectly exist in the soil for years.But they do not develop and out of them do not grow adult worms in the environment - the considered species of parasites can develop / grow / multiply only in the human body.A person in contact with fruits, berries, soil, vegetables can get a mass seeding of the hands of Ascaris eggs.Then, if the elementary rules of hygiene are not observed, these eggs enter the human gastrointestinal tract and begin to grow and grow into adult individuals.
The early migration stage of ascariasis, when eggs enter the human veins through the portal vein, lasts no more than 3 months.Then, adult specimens of worms already parasitize directly in those organs that were involved in migration - most often this is the intestine.
An adult female can lay aside up to 250,000 eggs a day in the human intestine, but they exit the body together with feces.For their "maturation" and growth, contact with the surrounding world( soil) is necessary, so even if a person does not receive any treatment for ascaridosis, after a year the parasites disappear from the body - the life of the roundworm lasts just as long.But such self-elimination from worms is possible only under condition of absence of repeated infection with eggs of worms and at all is not suitable variant of reaction to presence of parasites in an organism.
Symptoms of ascarids in adults and children
The clinical picture in both adults and children with ascarid infection depends on the phase in which the disease is located.
First phase( migratory)
Symptoms in this phase of ascariasis development in adults are poorly expressed and can be manifested only by periodic increases in body temperature to subfebrile indicators, short-term coughing attacks with sputum discharge( it may have a slightly pinkish tint due to impurityBlood).
In childhood, severe symptoms can appear only with a massive infection, when a large number of eggs of helminths entered the children's organism.In this case, the child will have general weakness, headaches, nausea and vomiting, an increase in body temperature to 38 degrees, an increase in the spleen and liver.
An itch and rash on the skin of the feet and brushes is a very characteristic sign of getting into the human body of ascaris eggs.Such rashes will resemble hives, but can also be diagnosed as allergic dermatosis.
The second phase( ascarids are already in the intestine)
This phase in medicine is classified as intestinal and characterized by symptoms of a dyspeptic disorder:
- alternates diarrhea and constipation;
- marked flatulence;
- may have symptoms of cholera and / or dysentery.
If we talk about ascaridosis of the second phase in childhood, the symptoms will be as follows:
- abdominal pain;
- vomiting( rare);
- general weakness;
- pallor of the skin;
- redness and itching in the anus.
Note: pain in children during the second phase of ascariasis is localized to the right of the iliac region, can be cramped in character and have one more localization directly above the navel.
Ascaridosis negatively affects the central nervous system, which in adults is manifested by nightmarish and troubled dreams, unreasonable anxiety, a sharp change of mood, insomnia.In especially severe cases, convulsive seizures may occur, meningitis often develops.
Mass infection with ascarids can lead to pathological lesions of the liver, worms can promote perforation( rupture) of intestinal walls, which leads to acute appendicitis.
Note: in the history of medicine described cases when infection with ascarids was so massive that adult specimens were found in the nasal sinuses, the pulmonary artery, in the pharynx.This condition can lead to suffocation.
Ascarids in adults and children: treatment with
Once the diagnosis of ascariasis is accurately established, the doctor will select the medications taking into account the patient's age / weight and the degree of infection.Modern medicines have high efficacy, and the recovery rate is 80-100%.
If the migratory( first) phase of ascariasis is diagnosed, then adults and children are prescribed anthelminthic agents of a wide range of action. These include:
Note: if a patient has symptoms of a pathological respiratory infection, he is prescribed bronchodilators and corticosteroids.
In case of detection of adult helminth individuals( intestinal phase of ascariasis development), patients will be prescribed Decaris, Piperazine, Pirantel pamoat.We recommend to read:
After the course of taking prescribed medications has passed, the patient must visit the medical institution after 30 days and undergo a preventive examination.
Askaridosis presents a certain danger to human health.It is especially important to control the presence / absence of helminths in childhood - it is children who rarely wash their hands, eat unwashed berries and fruits with vegetables, pick up various objects from the ground.
Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.