Oxalate kidney stones
Jun 20, 2018
Urolithiasis, or urolithiasis, is accompanied by the formation of stones( stones) in the organs of the urinary system, in particular - the kidneys( in this case they speak of nephrolithiasis).The cause of the disease is a number of exogenous and endogenous factors that cause metabolic disorders.
In its composition, kidney stones can be phosphate, urate or oxalate.It is the oxalate concrements that are detected in nephrolithiasis in more than 70% of cases.A specific feature of these formations is that they practically do not dissolve.Table of contents: Reasons for the formation of oxalate stones in the kidney Features of oxalate stones Symptoms Diagnosis How to get rid of oxalate stones in the kidneys?
Reasons for the formation of oxalate stones in the kidneys
Oxalate stones and sand in the kidneys appear with excess( alimentary) intake of oxalic acid and disturbances in the process of its exchange and excretion.One of the important factors is a violation of the acid-base balance in the body.Of great importance are also hereditary( genetic) predisposition and various endocrine pathologies, as well as hypodynamia, ie, a sedentary lifestyle, a deficiency of magnesium and vitamin B6.Oxalic acid, which enters urine, forms compounds with calcium, which leads to the formation of crystals-oxalates.On a healthy mucosa, they do not linger, but if there is inflammation, they are deposited in the calyx.A plaque forms on their surface, which gradually increases in size, forming a stone.
Chronic diseases leading to the development of oxalaturia:
- Crohn's disease;
- diabetes mellitus;
- pyelonephritis( inflammation of the renal pelvis).
Note: oxalate kidney stones are a fairly common pathology;According to medical statistics, up to 5% of the population suffer from this disease.
Features of oxalate stones
Dimensions of oxalate formations of characteristic tuberous form can vary from 1-2 mm to 4 cm. In some cases, the stone occupies the entire lumen of the kidney, which is an unconditional indication for an emergency operation.
Oksalatnyh stones usually have sharp edges, spines and processes.These types of stones are the most dangerous, because often injure tissues, which leads to the development of bleeding.
Important: is a characteristic sign of stone damage to the urinary tract tissue, is hematuria, ie, the presence of blood in the urine.
It is the blood that determines the characteristic black or dark brown color of oxalates.The structure of the formations is layered, since in addition to calcium salts other compounds also participate in the formation of the calculus.
In patients with nephrolithiasis, the following clinical manifestations of the disease are possible:
- pain syndrome;
- labored urination;
- burning sensation when urinating;
- change in color of urine;
- presence in the urine of pus.
Important: symptoms of renal colic causes blockage of the duct with a stone.
The localization of pain can be different - in the lumbar region, in the abdominal region on the right or on the left.Pain can also be irradiated to the hip( inner), groin and genital area.
Hematuria on the background of damage to the mucous membranes of the urinary tract is manifested by staining the urine in red.
Oxalic acid salts can also cause darkening of urine.
The presence of pus in urine indicates the attachment of a bacterial infection.
Obturation of the duct obstructs the passage of urine;Often urination becomes possible only in a horizontal position or with a raised pelvis.Complete blockage becomes the cause of anuria, which rapidly develops uraemia( getting toxins into the blood), leading to a pronounced and life-threatening intoxication of the body.
The main and most informative method of diagnosing the disease is ultrasound examination of the kidneys.Due to its dense consistency, oxalate stones are better than concrements of other composition, "visible" with ultrasound, and also during the radiographic examination of the organs of the urinary system.
Characteristic crystals consisting of calcium oxalates and ammonium oxalate salts are found in a laboratory urine test.
How to get rid of oxalate kidney stones
Note : the fragmentation of such stones in the kidneys is quite difficult, due to the specifics of their structure.
Diet for kidney stones
With oxalate stones in the kidneys, treatment is long;It implies strict adherence to a special diet and drinking regimen.
What you need to exclude from your diet:
- products with a high content of oxalic acid( spinach, Bulgarian pepper, sorrel, tomatoes, onions, citrus fruits);
- products rich in ascorbic acid( vitamin C), including gooseberries, cranberries, red currants and other fruits and berries with a sour taste;
- strong tea;
- is a fatty animal food with a high cholesterol content;
- smoked meat;
- canned food;
- fish and meat broths;
Products recommended for oxalate kidney stones:
- stiffened bakery products;
- various cereals( cereals);
- lean meat;
- baked fish;
- boiled potatoes;
- dairy products( including cottage cheese and curdled milk);
- cabbage( color and white);
Note : boiled potatoes are particularly useful for patients with nephrolithiasis, because it is able to bind excess calcium salts and shift urine pH to the alkaline side.
During the day, the patient is recommended to drink at least two liters of liquid.Such a drinking regime helps advance small stones and sand in the kidneys with their subsequent excretion in the urine.In addition, excess excess salts of oxalic acid are "washed out" from the body.
Note: consumption of large volumes of fluid is contraindicated in diagnosed kidney failure, hypertension and propensity to edema.
From vegetable juices, preference should be given to zucchini, pumpkin and cucumber.The active substances in them help to strip the oxalates.Consumption of beet and tomato juice with such stones, on the contrary, can lead to undesirable consequences.Recommended alkaline mineral water - "Narzan", "Essentuki No. 4" and "Obukhovskaya".
How to remove large stones from the kidneys?
If oxalate concretes have reached a large size and conservative techniques have not produced a positive result, the following can be shown:
- destruction of kidney stones by laser;
- crushing stones in the kidneys by ultrasound;
- operative( including endoscopic) removal of the calculus.
Important: with oxalate kidney stones is often the only truly effective treatment.
Treatment of oxalate kidney stones with tablets
Patients with nephrolithiasis show pharmacological agents that affect the structure of calculi, i.e., promote the dissolution of kidney stones.Also shown are drugs with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect.Spasmolytic agents( No-shpa, Platyphylline, etc.) contribute to the relief of spasm of the smooth muscles of the urinary tract, which accelerates the progress of the stones and their elimination by natural means.In addition, spasmolytics reduce the intensity of pain syndrome.
Attachment of secondary infection is an indication for the prescription of sulfonamides( Biseptol, Sulfadimethoxin) and broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Important: if it is determined that the stones are oxalate, caution should be taken with diuretics!They should be used only after the course of treatment with the means that help to break up the stones.
If urine-oxalate compounds are detected in urine, the course of vitamins B1 and B6( monthly, 10-day cycles 3 times a day) is indicated.
A course therapy with magnesium oxide( 10 days) or Asparkam in tablets or Xidefone in the form of a 2% solution( 2-3 weeks) is also required.
For 3-4 weeks, vitamin E is needed, and once every 3 months, a 3-4-week course of retinol is indicated.
Traditional treatment of kidney stones
Traditional medicine suggests the use of phytopreparations, ie, plant-based remedies.
Healing decoctions are prepared on the basis of fees, which include:
- skin of apples and( or) pears;
- elderberry berries;
- leaves of the nettle;
- the dryer;
- lime color;
- calendula flowers;
- marigold flowers;
- corn stigmas;
- the grass of violets fragrant;Birch buds and leaves
- bear eye;
- grass of the bearberry.
Important: should never be self-treated.The use of traditional medicine is possible only after consultation with a urologist!
In order to get rid of sand and small oxalate stones, and also to prevent the formation of new concrements, it is recommended to drink milk( preferably goat) with honey in the morning before breakfast.For 200 ml of warm milk, add 2 dessert spoons of natural honey and drink the liquid in small sips regularly( daily) for two or more months.
The speedy retreat of small concretions is facilitated by exercise therapy( exercise therapy).Complex, including walking, running, tilting and jumping, can only be recommended by the attending physician.In the presence of acute symptoms, self-practice of physical exercises is not recommended to avoid the development of complications.
Patients with nephrolithiasis are shown sanatorium treatment.
Preventing the formation of oxalate stones
As a measure to prevent nephrolithiasis, it is recommended to maintain a healthy lifestyle and maintain a drinking regime with the consumption of sufficient amounts of clean water.It is necessary to limit consumption of flour products and chocolate, refusal from fast food and( if possible) from products containing preservatives and artificial colors.Studies have shown that people who prefer to eat not at home are more likely to suffer from nephrolithiasis, but in McDonald's and others."Fast food restaurants."
Konev Alexander, internist