Glomerulonephritis in adults and children: causes, symptoms and treatment
Jun 20, 2018
Glomerulonephritis is a group of diseases that can vary depending on the specific nature of the course, the causes and methods of treatment.Most often, glomeruli( glomeruli of the kidneys) are affected in this disease, but other sections of the kidneys, including intercellular renal tissue and renal tubules, can enter the pathological process.According to statistics, glomerulonephritis is more often diagnosed in children under 12 years of age, but this pathology can develop in adults.The disease belongs to the group acquired.Table of contents Forms of glomerulonephritis Causes of glomerulonephritis development Symptoms of glomerulonephritis Diagnosis of glomerulonephritis Methods of treatment of glomerulonephritis
Forms of glomerulonephritis
In medicine, there is a rather complex classification of the disease under consideration. The following forms of glomerulonephritis are distinguished:
- In the course of glomerulonephritis:
- acute glomerulonephritis - occurs for the first time and is always sudden, the course is rapid, it ends in complete recovery, but can go on into a chronic form;
- chronic glomerulonephritis - glomerulonephritis of acute course, which has passed into the chronic form of the flow with periodic remissions and exacerbations;
- subacute - called malignant or rapidly progressive, characterized by poor dynamics, even with specific therapy, characterized by the development of complications, in 80% of cases ends in a lethal outcome.
- According to the clinical picture:
- nephrotic glomerulonephritis - the main signs are edema( peripheral and frontal, the arterial pressure often remains within the norm;
- is hematuric - in urine tests, a large amount of protein and blood is detected in laboratory tests,Edema is absent, and arterial pressure does not increase from the first days of development of pathology;
- hypertonic glomerulonephritis - there are no changes in the process of urineThere is practically no blood and protein in the urine tests, but blood pressure rises from the first days of the disease development and remains consistently high
- mixed - no specific symptoms can be identified, all of the above are present
- latent glomerulonephritis - the patient's condition is satisfactory,Edema and increased blood pressure are minor, the diagnosis can be made only on the basis of laboratory tests of urine - it will contain blood and protein.
- On the development mechanism, the following are distinguished:
- Primary glomerulonephritis - pathology in this case stands out as an independent disease;
- secondary type - the disease under consideration proceeds against the background of other systemic pathologies( lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and others).
Separate type of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis - the disease occurs after a previous streptococcal infection.
Causes of development of glomerulonephritis
The development of this disease depends on inflammatory and autoimmune factors.
With an inflammatory factor, glomerulonephritis can develop after the following:
- sore throats;
- of typhoid fever;
Autoimmune factor - when after the transferred infectious / inflammatory diseases the immune system of the body starts to work with disorders and perceives some cells of the body( in this case kidney cells) as foreign. The autoimmune risk factors include:
- presence in the body of foci of chronic infection;
- predisposition is hereditary;
- deficiency of vitamins in the body( hypovitaminosis);
- carriage of streptococcus on throat or skin without signs of infection.
Symptoms of glomerulonephritis
Acute glomerulonephritis always starts suddenly and initially has common manifestations:
- increase in body temperature to critical levels;
- nausea, single vomiting possible;
- pain syndrome in the lumbar region - this symptom may be absent;
- general weakness, increased drowsiness.
Specific features of the acute glomerulonephritis include
- edema - they can be peripheral and frontal, some patients may develop internal edema( ascites);
- increase in blood pressure - this symptom is noted even in those who have never before noticed violations in the work of the cardiovascular system;
- changes in the process of urination - urine acquires the "color of meat slops" because of the presence of blood in it, becomes turbid due to protein, in some patients oligonuria is fixed( poor urination).
Chronic glomerulonephritis is more restrained - during the remission period there is no deterioration in health at all.During periods of exacerbation, the patient develops all the signs inherent in the acute course of the disease in question.
Diagnosis of glomerulonephritis
Diagnostic measures should be performed only by a physician - the symptoms in this disease are usually pronounced clearly, but they can also indicate other diseases of the urinary system. As part of the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis, the following procedures are to be carried out:
- A patient is interviewed( if the child is a child, the information is received from the parents):
- was the kidney disease diagnosed earlier;
- is there a history of glomerulonephritis in relatives?
- whether the infectious disease was previously transferred and how long it took after a complete cure.The
- is going to be the first symptoms of the disease;
- with what intensity symptoms develop;
- , were any measures taken to get rid of the symptoms - for example, if drugs were taken to lower blood pressure or get rid of edema;
- what was the reaction of the body to the therapy.
- The patient is examined:
- the doctor notes the presence and intensity of edema;
- measures blood pressure and fixes its increased indices;
- visually determines the changed color of urine.
- Laboratory tests:
- urine - the content of protein and blood in it is determined;
- blood - increased white blood cell count and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate will indicate an inflammatory focus in the body;
- biochemical blood test - the presence of cholesterol, a small protein content;
- serum immunoassay - performed with suspicion of an autoimmune cause of glomerulonephritis development.
- Instrumental examination.An ultrasound is performed, on which the specialist can note the increase in the size of the kidneys.
A rheumatologist, a pulmonologist, an ophthalmologist, a cardiologist, an infectious disease specialist may be invited to consult a doctor who examines the patient and conducts diagnostic activities.
Treatment methods for glomerulonephritis
For acute glomerulonephritis treatment will last 3-4 weeks - the entire period of the patient should comply with bed rest, as far as possible.The doctor necessarily prescribes antibacterial drugs( antibiotics - penicillins, macrolides) - only these medicines can relieve of inflammation or infection.Since glomerulonephritis is accompanied by edema, it is necessary to ensure the outflow of excess fluid from the body - this is done by diuretics, which only a specialist can competently select.
After the acute course of the disease is removed and the intensity of symptoms decreases, the patient is assigned:
- antiallergic( antihistamines) preparations;
- anticoagulants, disaggregants are agents that can improve blood microcirculation;
- cytotoxic drugs and high-grade hormone therapy - is prescribed only in cases of severe disease.
Note : if glomerulonephritis is characterized by severe course, complications that are life-threatening for the patient develop, the doctor prescribes hemodialysis, a procedure for purifying the blood of toxic substances.
Diet for glomerulonephritis
An important moment in the treatment of the disease in question is a diet.It must be followed strictly that the prescribed therapy has the desired effect. When glomerulonephritis is strictly forbidden to eat:
- apples of sweet varieties;
- white cabbage in any form( stewed, sour, boiled, raw);
- curd and sour-milk products;Raisins and fresh grapes
- apricots in any form;
In addition, salted, pickled, smoked and fried dishes are completely excluded from the diet - during the treatment of acute glomerulonephritis or exacerbation of its chronic form, only steamed dishes should be eaten.It is not desirable to drink coffee and even strong tea - it is advisable to give preference to pumpkin juice and decoction from the dog rose.The first drink helps purify the blood from toxins, increase immunity, and decoction from the rose hips removes excess fluid from the body, relieves swelling.
Traditional medicine has several prescriptions of medicines that will help to cure glomerulonephritis.But they will only help - they are not a panacea and should be taken only after the approval of the attending physician.In no case can not refuse medicines, antibiotics - even the most powerful medicinal plants are not able to cope with the inflammatory or infectious process.
Here are a few effective tools that will help to quickly restore the kidneys:
- Mix 1 teaspoon corn stigmas and the same number of tails from the cherry, pour 500 ml of steep boiling water and leave to infuse until the medicine has cooled to room temperatureTemperature.Take infusion should be ¼ cup three times a day for half an hour before meals.Treatment should be continued until the symptoms of glomerulonephritis disappear.
- Take one tablespoon of dried flowers of black elderberry, pour a glass of boiling water, insist until it cools completely.Take medicine by 1/3 cup three times a day before meals.The duration of infusion of infusions of elderberry flowers is 3-4 weeks, until complete cure.
- Mix 4 tablespoons of flaxseed, three tablespoons of birch leaves in dry form, three tablespoons of the rhizome of the field keeper in dry form.The resulting composition is poured with 500 ml of boiling water, it is infused for 120 minutes.Take the infusion you need to 1/3 cup three times a day.Duration of treatment - 7 days.
To increase immunity and help the body to cope more quickly with the pathological process, you need to take the following medicine every day on a teaspoon: a glass of honey, a tablespoon of walnuts, a tablespoon hazelnut, peel of one lemon.All mix and store in a warm place.
Possible complications and consequences
Doctors warn that glomerulonephritis can cause the following complications:
- pulmonary edema - develops against the background of cardiac dysfunction, persistent high blood pressure, fluid stagnation in the body;
- kidney type eclampsia - seizures and epileptic seizures occur against the background of a sharp increase in blood pressure, right up to the hypertensive crisis;
- Acute renal failure - complete absence of kidney function, most often occurs against the background of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.
- the transition of the acute form of the considered disease to chronic;
- chronic course of renal failure;
- severe intoxication of the body - uremia.
Prognosis of the disease is usually favorable - with timely diagnosis, correctly provided medical care.But if the course of the glomerulonephritis is severe, the doctor was late, then a lethal outcome is possible.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category