Hematuria: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
Jun 20, 2018
A hematuria is a condition in which a person has blood in his urine.This can not be called a disease, since blood in the urine may be present for many reasons.Therefore, doctors believe that hematuria is a syndrome, which should be an occasion to turn to specialists.Table of contents: Causes of hematuria Classification of hematuria Symptoms of hematuria Diagnosis Treatment of hematuria
Causes of hematuria
Almost always the presence of blood in the urine is a sign of the development or already progressing of the pathology of the kidneys and the entire urinary system. Most often, the hematuria appears in the following cases:
- in the urinary system or kidneys there is a tumor( benign or malignant);
- began the movement of the stone along the ureter;
- develop inflammatory processes in the kidneys - pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis;
- is progressing viral infection;
- a person was forced to take medications for a long time( hematuria does not happen for all medicines, but for a certain number of drugs);
- a foreign body has entered the urethra;
- develops an inflammatory process in the bladder( cystitis).
Very often, the hematuria occurs against the background of blood diseases, it can signal some serious abnormalities in the functioning of the immune system.
In any case, the appearance of blood in the urine always means a malfunction of the body!
Classification of hematuria
Depending on what led to the appearance of the syndrome under consideration, doctors will also establish its appearance.In general, the classification is as follows:
- extrarenal - the blood in the urine did not appear due to diseases of the kidneys and urinary system, not with injuries;
- renal - hematuria occurs just against the backdrop of kidney pathology;
- postrenal - this syndrome occurs against a background of diseases of the bladder and / or urinary tract.
According to the degree of development of hematuria, doctors distinguish the following types:
- terminal - blood is present only in the last portion of urine;
- initial - blood is detected only in the first portion of urine;
- total - a portion of the excreted urine is all painted in red / pink.
Note: if the blood in the urine is detected with the naked eye, then this hematuria is called a hematuria, but in some cases the presence of blood in the urine can be determined only by laboratory tests - in this case it will be a microhematuria.
Symptoms of hematuria
This syndrome is most often accompanied by other characteristics:
- urination becomes frequent;
- body temperature may rise to subfebrile;
- there is a urge to empty the intestines, but going to the toilet does not give results;
- there are aching, pulling pains of non-intensive nature in the lumbar region;
- may occur in the lower abdomen.
Please note: staining of urine in brown or pink may be temporary and not a pathology.This happens, for example, when eating beets or rhubarb - you do not need to worry about it, after a day the color of urine will be restored.
When visiting a health facility, patients with hematuria undergo a complete examination - it is important to quickly and accurately establish the causes of such a syndrome in order to conduct effective and competent treatment. As part of the diagnosis, the following procedures are prescribed for the patients:
- general analysis of urine;
- urine analysis according to Nechiporenko;
- general clinical blood test;
- ultrasound examination of the kidneys and urinary system;
- ultrasound examination of the prostate gland in men;
- magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal cavity;
- Cytoscopy is a study of the bladder.
Treatment of hematuria
Since the condition in question is not an independent disease, there is no specific treatment.The doctor, after determining the cause of the appearance of blood in the urine, appoints the patient those medicines that are able to cure the underlying disease.It can be both antibacterial agents( antibiotics), and antiviral drugs.In some cases, surgical treatment is prescribed - for example, in the detection of a benign or malignant neoplasm.And if the blood in the urine appeared suddenly and in large quantities, then the patient will be prescribed blood-restoring medications, urgent measures will be taken - this condition is dangerous for the patient's life.
Note: about any independent treatment or use of folk remedies is out of the question!When there is even an insignificant amount of blood in the urine, it is necessary to immediately go through the examination in a medical institution.
Hematuria is a serious enough syndrome, which always indicates the progression of some pathology.Do not expect "will pass by itself" - the condition will only worsen, which may lead to the need for surgical treatment.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.