Cancer of the penis: stages, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention
Cancer of the penis - malignant neoplasm, localized on the tissues of the male reproductive organ.This kind of oncology is prone to metastasis, which can lead to death of the patient.This is a rare enough pathology, which occurs in 4% of all cancers of the genitourinary system.Table of contents: Forms and stages of the penis Symptoms of penis cancer Diagnosis Methods of treatment of penile cancer Prevention measures Forecast of the disease
Forms and stages of penile cancer
Several forms of penile cancer are diagnosed:
- Nodular form.Under the skin of the reproductive organ, you can feel a round, smooth, painless new growth.
- Ulcerative form.On the head and foreskin appears a small sore, with palpation of which there are painful sensations.
- Papillary cancer.The tumor is outwardly outward and shaped like a cauliflower inflorescence.
- Edema form.On the penis there is a small nodule that provokes swelling of the penis.
Modern medicine identifies four stages of the disease :
- The first stage.Cancer cells spread exclusively on the skin of the penis.
- The second stage.The malignant tumor grows into the cavernous body of the genital organ, enlarges it in size and makes it compact even without an erection.
- Third stage.The tumor extends to the prostate gland or the walls of the urethra, the lymph nodes.
- Fourth stage.Metastases spread to neighboring organs.
It is desirable to diagnose the disease at an early stage, until the metastases spread throughout the body.
Important! The most common type of tumor is basal cell and wart cancer, melanoma and carcinoma.
Symptoms of penis cancer
Basically, malignant tumors progress slowly enough.A complete cure of the disease can only be provided if it is detected at an early stage.
The first symptoms in the form of a sore, tubercle, papilloma or nodule can be detected independently during hygiene procedures.Most often the neoplasm is located on the head of the penis, sometimes - in the foreskin.
Important! Neoplasms do not disturb the patient for the first time, but over time they increase in size and a man can be bothered by unpleasant sensations.
Additional symptoms of the disease include:
- acute pain;
- hyperemia of the skin of the penis;
- weight loss;
- increased swelling;
- general weakness;
- pain when urinating;
- dysfunction of the urinary system;
- fetid discharge from ulcers;
- bleeding from the tumor;
- chronic malaise and lack of sleep;
- increased inguinal lymph nodes.
The severity of symptoms depends on the stage and form of the disease.It is very important to diagnose the pathology in time and select the right treatment.Cancer of the penis of the first and second stages successfully yields to conservative treatment.The launched clinical picture requires an operation.
If a man has discovered a tumor on the penis, he should immediately consult a therapist, who in turn will refer him to a narrow specialist - andrologist, oncologist and urologist. At the first examination, an anamnesis is collected.The doctor identifies complaints, and also receives information about hereditary diseases, transferred diseases and operations.
When viewing the genitals, a tubercle is visualized and its diameter, approximate shape and location can be easily determined.Neighboring lymph nodes and their condition are studied.
A detailed laboratory and clinical examination is required for the final diagnosis.
The ultrasound of the penis is the main method of clinical diagnosis, which allows you to accurately determine the nature of the tumor, its size and location.In addition, ultrasound of the peritoneal and x-ray organs may be needed to detect metastases in neighboring organs and determine the degree of their severity.
Laboratory tests that are prescribed for the diagnosis of penile cancer:
- General blood test.It allows to reveal the inflammatory process in the male body.In the biological material, the level of leukocytes is increased, signs of anemia and a high rate of erythrocyte sedimentation predominate.
- General analysis of urine.It shows signs of inflammation of the urinary tract.The parameters of leukocytes and erythrocytes increase.
- Biopsy.Investigation of fluid pathogenic tubercle under a microscope.Allows you to determine the nature of the tumor.
- Cytological examination.
Based on the history and results of the research, the physician makes the final diagnosis and prescribes treatment.
Methods of treatment of penile cancer
Disease in early stages is treated conservatively.But more often the cancer of a penis is found out in the started stage when immediate operative intervention with the subsequent rehabilitation is required.
Surgical intervention is carried out by two methods :
- Cryodestruction and laser destruction of the tumor, circumcision and scalpation of the penis.The excision of affected areas of the skin with subsequent plasty of the genital organ is performed.
- Penectomy - amputation of the penis.Most often, the operation is carried out in part.After it, the patient has the opportunity to exercise sexual functions.In extreme cases, complete removal of the genital organ is carried out.
As an additional treatment, chemotherapy is used, radiation therapy by external and internal sources of radioactive radiation.
In order to avoid the development of the disease in the future, it is necessary to fulfill the elementary prevention rules:
- treats the diseases of the genitourinary system in time;
- get rid of bad habits;
- Avoid accidental sexual intercourse;
- observe the hygiene of the genitals;
- all year round strengthen immunity;
- Avoid injury to the penis and testicles;
- timely respond to the slightest changes in the body;
- protect the reproductive system from exposure to ultraviolet light.
Important! Compliance with preventive measures will reduce the risk of developing the disease at times.
Forecast of the disease
Complete healing depends on a number of important factors:
- the nature of the disease;
- genetic factor;
- state of the immune system;
- of the patient's age;
- presence of chronic diseases.
Overall, after diagnosing penile cancer, the patient can survive another 5 years.The chances for the future depend on the professionalism of the doctor and the right treatment.
Cancer of the penis is a rare pathology.According to statistics, it affects one in 100 thousand men of childbearing age.To prevent the development of pathology, be attentive to your health, regularly undergo a survey and perform a follow-up ultrasound.
Radevich Igor Tadeushevich, the doctor of the sexopathologist-andrologist of 1 category