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The first signs of lung cancer

The first signs of lung cancer

Lung cancer is a serious disease that develops mostly from bronchial tissues, as well as bronchial glands and affects the lungs.

Mostly smokers are subject to smoking( according to various statistical studies 80-90%), while the lion's share of the cases is 45 to 80 years old, but also lung cancer in young people.

Table of contents:

Types of lung cancer

Note: cancer cells that affect the lungs divide very quickly, spreading the tumor throughout the body and destroying other organs.Therefore, an important point is the timely diagnosis of the disease.The earlier lung cancer was detected and treatment started - the higher the chance of prolonging the life of the patient.

In sixty percent of cases, pathology develops in the upper part of the lungs.Most likely, this is due to the fact that it is in this department that tobacco smoke and air containing carcinogenic substances last the longest.

Cancer originating from the bronchus is called central, from the lung tissue - peripheral.In 80% of cases, the disease is formed in the central zone and the gateway of the lung.

Types of lung cancer

Central( basal) cancer is divided into:

  • endobronchial;
  • peribronchial.

At an early stage, the tumor is similar to a polyp or plaque.Further, it can expand in different ways.A mediastinal species is also distinguished, which is characterized by a small tumor and rapid proliferation.

Depending on the histological changes, in our country a classification is adopted that distinguishes:

  • non-small cell lung cancer;
  • small-cell forms.

Non-small cell lung cancer

This is one of the most common forms of malignant pulmonary tumor, it has the following subspecies:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma is a degenerate cell of epithelial tissue lining the bronchi.It spreads slowly, is easy to diagnose, has good treatment predictions.
  • Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer whose cells are formed from the glandular tissue of small bronchi.The tumor metastases into the contralateral lung tissue, forms new foci in the immediate vicinity of the primary node.More often it is characteristic for women, practically does not depend on smoking, grows to huge sizes.It looks like a nodule grayish white, in the center - sclerosized tissue, in the tumor are visible lobules.Sometimes the neoplasm is covered with mucus, foci of moist necrosis, bleeding from the vessels are noticeable.There is adenocarcinoma with bronchial symptoms - atelectasis and bronchopneumonia.
  • Large-celled cancer is an abnormally large anaplastic cell, the growth of which is usually seen in the central part of the bronchial tree.The tumor is aggressive, does not have a typical clinical picture.At a late stage, there is a cough with sputum, which has veins of blood.Patients are depleted.On the histological sections - necrosis and hemorrhage.
  • Mixed forms are tumors in which several types of cancer cells are present.Symptoms of the disease and prognosis depend on the combination of types of neoplasms and the degree of predominance of certain cells.

Small cell lung cancer

Small cell lung cancer

This is one of the most aggressive varieties of cancer.Outwardly resembles a soft light yellow infiltrate with the inclusion of foci of necrosis, the cells look like oat grains.It is characterized by rapid growth and the formation of regional and distant metastases.99% of patients with this form are smokers.

As you know, the histological picture of one tumor site may differ from the other.Accurate diagnosis of the tumor allows you to make a prediction of the development of the disease and choose the most effective treatment regimen.

Stages of lung cancer

Modern medicine identifies several stages of the disease

cancer Step lung

dimensions tumor

pathological process in the lymph nodes

Metastezirovanie

Stage 0

Neoplasm is localized, does not spread into surrounding tissues

is missing

is missing

Stage I

OpuholevThe battery neoplasm to 3 cm, strikes main bronchus

offline

offline

Step of I B

Neoplasm from 3 to 5 cm, localize, is not transferred to other portions,it is below the tracheal 2 cm and more

offline

offline

Step II A

tumor size - up to 3 cm, it does not strike the main bronchus

Affects single peribronchial regional lymph nodes.

offline

Stage II In

Neoplasm size of 3 to 5 cm and has not spread to other lung portions, localized below the trachea 2 cm and more

noticeable loss singleRegional peribronchial nodes of the lymphatic system.

is missing

A tumor of any size that grows into other organs of the chest.Does not affect the heart, large vessels and trachea.

offline

offline

Step III A

size tumors - 5 cm, lesions other portions lungs occurs

touched upon bifurcation or other lymph nodes locatedIn the mediastinum on the side of the lesion

is missing

A tumor of any size that grows into other organs of the thorax.Does not affect the heart, large vessels and trachea.

observed lesion bifurcation / peribronchial / regional and other mediastinal lymph nodes on the affected side

offline

Step III In

tumor neoplasm of any size passing on mediastinum, large vessels,Trachea, heart and other organs

Any nodes of the lymphatic system

affected

CancerOf the lung can be any size and spread to different organs

The lymph nodes of the mediastinum are involved in the inflammatory process not only on the side of the lesion but also on the opposite side and the lymph nodes located in the upper shoulder girdle

Stage IV

Tumor size does not matter

Affected by any lymph nodes

Single or multiple observedgovernmental metastezirovaniya in any organs and systems

Stage-cancer

Causes and factors of occurrence of lung cancer

The main cause of oncology of any organ is the damage of DNA cells, which occurs due to the influence of various factors on them.

In terms of lung cancer, the reasons for its occurrence may be:

  • work in harmful production;
  • smoking;
  • inhalation of harmful substances.

Most often, this disease is observed in workers of the following occupations:

  • steelmakers;
  • of miners;
  • woodworkers;
  • metallurgists;
  • on the production of ceramics, phosphates and asbestos-cement.

The main reasons for the formation of lung cancer :

  • Inhalation of carcinogens that are in the smoke from cigarettes.The likelihood of the disease is significantly increased when smoking more than 40 cigarettes a day.
  • Poor environmental conditions.This is especially true of the area where the processing and mining enterprises are located.
  • Radiation irradiation.
  • Contact with substances that trigger the onset of the disease.
  • Tuberculosis, frequent pneumonia.

Signs and symptoms of pulmonary oncology

Most often at the initial stage the disease does not seem to be apparent in any way, and a person turns to specialists when it is already impossible for him to help something.

The main symptoms of lung cancer:

  • chest pain;
  • shortness of breath;
  • cough that does not last a long time;
  • weight loss;
  • blood in sputum.

However, these manifestations do not always indicate the presence of oncology.They can mean a lot of other diseases.Therefore, the diagnosis of cancer in most cases is belated.

In addition to the above symptoms, lung cancer clearly shows :

  • lack of interest in life;
  • listlessness;
  • very low activity;
  • elevated temperature for a long period of time.

It is important to understand that this disease is easily masked for bronchitis, pneumonia, so it is important to differentiate it from other diseases.

Diagnosis of lung cancer

Diagnosis of lung cancer Early diagnosis gives hope for a cure.The most reliable way in this case is the X-ray of the lungs.Clarify the diagnosis with the help of endoscopic bronchography.With its help you can determine the size and location of the tumor.In addition, a cytological examination is mandatory-a biopsy.

If the diagnosis is confirmed, the treatment should be started immediately, strictly following the doctor's instructions.Do not rely on non-traditional medicine and folk remedies.

Given the fact that the onset of the disease occurs without symptoms, it makes sense to do fluorography every year.This is especially recommended for people at risk.If there are suspicions, the diagnosis is confirmed until the opposite is proven.

Diagnosis is clarified with the help of:

  • computed tomography;
  • transthoracic puncture;
  • biopsy;
  • blood test on the level of oncomarkers.
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Trofimova Yaroslava, medical reviewer


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