Blood test for oncomarkers: types of oncomarkers and interpretation of the results
The incidence of malignant neoplasms is one of the serious problems facing mankind.Despite the constant progressive development of practical medicine, the incidence of tumor processes is one of the leading places in the overall structure of medical problems.
The causes leading to increased cancer growth among people are diverse.In many respects, the growth of tumors is provoked by the ecological situation, smoking, alcohol and drugs, a large number of carcinogens in food and life, an increase in life expectancy, and a sedentary lifestyle.But the incidence of malignant neoplasms is increasing in young people. ...Contents: Contents: What is oncomarkers What is necessary for testing for oncomarkers? Norm and interpretation of the results of the AFP tumor assay marker( cancer-embryonic antigen CEA, antigen CD66E): the norm and interpretation of the results CA 125: norm and treatment of results. Oncomarker CA 15-3Oncomarker CA 19-9 Oncomarker CA 72-4 Oncomarker Cyfra 21-1 Prostate-specific antigen( PSA): the norm and deviations from it Oncomarker CA 242: the norm and the deviations from it Complex diagnostics
What is the tumor markers
Can cancer be detectedIn the early stages, orTo suspect its development, the tendency to the formation of a tumor?Medicine is looking for ways for early diagnosis.At this stage, it is possible to determine the onset of the tumor process in oncomarkers - specific proteins that can be detected by laboratory methods in blood and urine at preclinical stages of the painful process.These diagnostic substances are allocated by tumor cells.
Oncomarkers are substances of a protein nature that can be found in the blood or urine of people with a cancerous predisposition.Cells of tumors secrete cancer markers in the blood from the moment of onset of development of the tumor, which determines the diagnosis of the disease at the preclinical stage.
The values of tumor markers can be judged both on the presence of a tumor process and on the effect of treatment.Also, dynamic observation of cancer markers allows to determine the very beginning of a relapse of the disease.
Note: Today, more than two hundred oncomarkers are known.Some of them are quite specific, this means that by the value of the analysis it is possible to determine the localization of the tumor.
To increase the value of oncomarkers, non-cancer diseases can also result.
The main value in practice is about 20 names of oncomarkers.We recommend that you read:
. What is needed to pass the analysis for oncomarkers
The analysis must be prescribed by a doctor.
Before the delivery, the patient must follow certain rules:
- blood must be taken in the morning hours( no earlier than 8-12 hours after the last meal);
- , three days before the test, we definitely exclude alcohol, smoking, food rich in fats.Also, you should refrain from pickled and smoked products;
- it is important that the day before the patient did not subject himself to physical overloads;
- Before taking the test, do not take any medications other than those necessary for vital signs( after consulting a doctor);
- , when certain tests are performed, sexual intercourse should be excluded within the time specified by the doctor.
Norm and treatment of results of the AFM oncoprotein AFDWe recommend to read:
AFP( AFP-alpha , alfa-Fetoprotein )
This cancer marker is a glycoprotein analogous to albumin.
Norm: up to 10 ng / ml,( 8 IU / ml), the content is higher than 10 IU / ml - an indicator of pathology.
You can use the formulas
ng / ml = ME / ml x 1.21 or ME / ml = ng / ml x 0.83 for translating the result units.
For dangerous indicators of this marker, one should suspect:
- breast carcinoma;
- of gastrointestinal cancer and hepatic-biliary system;
- in advanced stages of female genital cancer.
Also, the CA 15-3 index can rise when:
- benign neoplasms and inflammatory diseases of the mammary glands;
- cirrhotic hepatic processes;
- as a physiological "splash" in the second half of pregnancy;
- of some autoimmune processes.
Oncomarker CA 19-9Recommended to read:
The oncomarker is a carbohydrate antigen 19-9( CA 19-9), which is used to carry out early diagnosis of neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract.
The most informative analysis for pancreatic tumors.Specificity in this case is high and is 82%.In tumor problems of the bile duct and liver, 72% of cases are specific.
Norm: 0-37 Units / mL
Concentration of 40 IU / mL and above is considered dangerous.
The CA 19-9 oncomer can identify:
- malignant processes of the gastrointestinal tract( gastric and intestinal cancer);
- cancer of the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts;
- cancer of female genital organs and mammary glands;
- bladder cancer.
Among the non-tumor processes, CA 19-9 is increased in the case of:
- of inflammatory changes and cirrhotic processes in liver diseases;
- diseases of the bile duct and gallbladder( cholecystitis, cholangitis, cholelithiasis);
- cystic fibrosis( defeat of the glands of external secretion and respiratory problems).
Cancer marker CA 72-4
Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 is the most informative in determining gastric cancer.In a smaller number of cases, the reliability of developing tumor processes in the lungs and ovaries is confirmed.
Norm: up to 6.9 Units / mL
Increased values above the norm are typical for:
- Malignant processes of the gastrointestinal tract( especially the stomach);
- of ovarian, uterus, breast cancer;
- of pancreatic cancer.
Elevated values are also determined when:
- inflammatory gynecological processes;
- cysts and fibrotic ovarian changes;
- inflammatory and cirrhotic changes in the liver;
- autoimmune processes in the body.
Oncomarker Cyfra 21-1
Oncomarker Cytokeratin 19 fragment( Cyfra 21-1) is the most specific in the diagnosis of malignant processes of the bladder and one of the types of lung cancer( non-small cell).
Note: it is usually assigned simultaneously with the CEA.
Norm: up to 3.3 ng / l
The Cyfra 21-1 value increases with:
- malignant neoplasm of the bladder;
- cancer of the bronchopulmonary system;
- malignant mediastinal tumors.
The increased value of the Cyfra 21-1 tumor marker can be observed in chronic inflammatory processes of the liver, kidneys, as well as fibrotic changes in lung tissue.
Prostate-specific antigen( PSA): the norm and deviations from itRecommended to read:
Protein isolated from the prostate tissue.Used to determine adenoma and prostate cancer, also to control treatment.
Norm: up to 4 ng / l
Increased PSA values observed with:
- malignant processes of the prostate;
- infectious prostatitis;
- adenoma of the prostate;
Important: after 50 years, all men are recommended to take PSA analysis once a year.
Blood is determined by:
- bound PSA( with blood proteins);
- free PSA( not bound to blood proteins).
The total content of free and bound PSA, total PSA, is also taken into account.
In a malignant process, free PSA is lower than in benign.
CA 242: norm and deviations from it
More specific than CA 19-9 cancer marker of pancreatic cancer.
Norm: up to 30 IU / ml.
Definition of oncomarkers can be assigned as single analyzes, or by complexes that allow obtaining more reliable data.
At the same time, cancer markers can be used for cancer of the stomach, liver, breast, bladder and other organs.
Complexes are presented in the table.
For more information on cancer markers and the possibilities of diagnosing cancer in the initial stages with their help, you will receive a video review:
Alexander Lotin, medical reviewer