According to WHO, almost one third of cancers can be prevented.Therefore, one of the key health strategies is cancer prevention.Contents: 1. Primary cancer prevention - Proper nutrition as a form of cancer prevention - Lifestyle and bad habits - another method of cancer prevention - Prevention of infectious diseases - an important step in preventing cancer - Environmental factors - Professional "harm"Ionizing radiation 2. Secondary cancer prevention 3. Tertiary cancer prevention
Primary cancer prevention
This group of preventive measures includes measures aimed at changing the imageLife, changes in diet, elimination of risk factors for oncological diseases.We will discuss in more detail each of the factors.
Proper nutrition as a type of cancer prevention
To increase the risk of cancer, lead:
- Obesity.Tumors of the female reproductive system( cancer of the uterus, breast) are more common in women with excessive body weight.Therefore, the prevention of breast cancer begins with the normalization of weight.
- Excessive consumption of fat, especially exposed to heat treatment.The total amount of fat eaten per day should not exceed 60 grams.
- The use of harmful products - smoked products, fried foods.Abuse of them increases the risk of colon cancer.
- The use of sausages - in their manufacture used nitrite, used as a dye.Nitrites give the products a beautiful pink color, but they are also a weak carcinogen.Nobody forces to abandon sausages and sausages completely, but to eat exclusively by them - can be dangerous to health.
To reduce the risk of oncology development:
- Vegetables and fruits - they contain a lot of vitamins and trace elements that promote the normal functioning of body cells and prevent their transformation into cancer.
- Fiber.It is not an element of food digested in the human body( contained in large quantities in vegetables, cereals, fruits).Nevertheless, fiber has a huge impact on the digestive process and reduces the likelihood of colon cancer.
Lifestyle and bad habits are another method of cancer prevention
Tobacco smoking is the most obvious preventable risk factor for lung cancer, as well as cancer of the larynx, lips and tongue.Chronic smokers at times increase the risk of cancer of other localization: stomach, uterus, pancreas.The risk increases not only active smoking, but also passive - in the smoke smoked by smokers, the content of carcinogens is only slightly less.
The lack of physical activity of leads to obesity, and the consequences of it are mentioned above.Doing sports not only contribute to weight loss, but also increase the overall tone of the body and tone of the immune system.The immune system is struggling with cancerous transformation of cells, so its condition is important in terms of prevention of oncology.
Alcohol abuse leads to metabolic disorders in the body, reduces overall resistance( stability), which greatly increases the risk of oncology.
From the above it follows that smoking cessation, drinking alcohol, regular exercise is a comprehensive prevention of cancer.All these methods can be attributed to folk methods of cancer prevention, which are confirmed by scientific research.
Prevention of infectious diseases is an important step in the prevention of cancer
The relationship between the development of certain cancers with viral and bacterial diseases has been absolutely proven.
Examples can be:
- hepatitis B and C viruses increasing the risk of liver cancer severalfold;
- presence in the stomach of Helicobacter pylori( bacterium), which contributes to the occurrence of not only gastritis and ulcers, but also stomach cancer.
- some strains of the papilloma virus( HPV), leading to the development of cervical cancer.
Measures for the prevention of these cancers consist of vaccination against the corresponding viruses and bacteria, as well as in the rejection of unprotected sex( the main way of transmission of these infections is sexual) with new unverified partners.Vaccination against hepatitis B is already included in the national vaccination schedule, and the vaccine against HPV can be grafted on their own.To get rid of Helicobacter pylori it is possible, having passed or having taken place a course of eradication therapy.
Environmental pollution from human activities is one of the most important factors in the growth of the overall incidence of oncology.Prevention measures in this case should be aimed at reducing pollution.In the presence of strong foci of environmental contamination, reducing the likelihood of cancer will only help to change the place of residence - it is enough to move away from the smelting factories and cars.
In rural areas, away from large cities, the frequency of skin cancer, lung cancer and other cancers is about 1.5 times lower than in large industrial centers and megacities.This difference is especially noticeable when studying the age structure of cancer diseases: young people die more often from cancer in cities.
Work in harmful working conditions, where a person daily contacts with carcinogens, significantly increases the number of cancer diseases.To eliminate this risk factor, a person needs to either change his place of work or carefully observe the safety procedures: wear protective clothing, respirators, pay great attention to hygiene - take a shower every day after the end of the working day.
Ionizing radiation includes X-rays and ultraviolet irradiation.
In ordinary life, a person faces x-ray exposure most often within the walls of medical institutions - when passing X-ray examinations.To reduce the total radiation dose, which is the main risk factor for oncology, it is possible only in one way: to undergo X-ray examinations only on the prescription of a doctor and, preferably, on low-dose devices.
Ultraviolet rays, affecting the skin, can cause basal cell carcinoma and melanoma.Therefore, in order to prevent cancer, it is desirable to be insolation( sun irradiation) as little as possible, and it is not recommended to visit the solarium.
Please note: is more of a desire for people at risk - those who have had cases of such cancers in the family, as well as people with light skin, sensitive to sunburn.
Secondary cancer prevention
This group of preventive measures includes various types of medical examination aimed at detecting precancerous diseases, as well as precursors of oncology.
The following survey methods are used:
- Fluorography - X-ray examination of the lungs, aimed at detecting lung and mediastinal cancer;
- mammogram - X-ray of the mammary glands, which allows to suspect breast cancer;
- cytological examination of the smear from the cervix and from the cervical canal - prevention of cervical cancer;
- endoscopy studies.In Japan, absolutely all people over the age of 35 every six months undergo colonoscopy, which allows to detect colon cancer at the earliest stage.This should also include bronchoscopy, which excludes cancer of the bronchi and lungs.
- MRI and CT, including - with contrast;
- Blood test for oncomarkers is a special chemical substance, the concentration of which increases when oncology occurs.For most types of cancer, there are oncomarkers.
Secondary cancer prevention measures are implemented at the level of government programs: all people older than a certain age should undergo a fluorography, women older than 35 years - mammograms.If you suspect a cancer, you should get an oncologist's advice, which will assign a follow-up study.
Note: introduction of screening programs for cancer prevention made it possible to increase the detectability of the disease in the early stages by 50%.This, in turn, allowed to reduce the death rate from oncological diseases by 15-20%.
The methods of secondary prophylaxis include self-diagnosis of .Particularly clearly visible is the effectiveness of self-diagnosis on the example of breast cancer prevention - every woman should be able to palpate her breasts for the presence of formations in them.On consultation with an oncologist, you can get the necessary skills and apply them as often as possible - the appearance in the breast of even a small education is a reason for consulting a doctor and more detailed examination.
More details about breast cancer prevention - in the video review:
Tertiary cancer prevention
Preventive measures from this group are aimed at detecting tumor recurrences already in patients treated for cancer patients, as well as for early diagnosis of metastasis.In most cases, the oncologist deals with these measures, consultation of which can be obtained at any district polyclinic or in a specialized oncological dispensary.
Important: , every patient who has ever been treated for cancer should undergo a regular medical examination with an oncologist.
Regularity of these inspections:
- First year - quarterly.
- The second year - every six months.
- Third and subsequent - annually.
You will receive exhaustive information about all existing measures for the prevention of cancer by viewing this video review:Gudkov Roman, resuscitator