Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm localized in the region of the rectum.Primarily the tumor is formed in the large intestine.This pathology is fast, and therefore requires timely medical care.Colorectal cancer is most susceptible to patients in the age group over 40 years.Contents: What does it come up with?Symptoms of colorectal cancer Variety of pathology Colorectal cancer screening Methods of treatment of colorectal cancer Metastases with colorectal cancer Predictions Preventative measures
The exact causes of oncological diseases, including colorectal cancer, are not known for certain.
However, doctors distinguish cancer from the following factors contributing to the development of this pathology:
- hereditary predisposition;
- alcohol abuse;
- is a sedentary lifestyle;
- abuse of red meat;
- insufficient quantity in the daily diet of products containing vegetable fiber;
- intestinal polyposis;
- inflammatory bowel disease proceeding in chronic form;
- anal cracks;
- diabetes mellitus;
- advanced radiotherapy;
- presence in the history of the patient of other oncological diseases;
- Crohn's disease.
Important! The presence of excess weight, according to doctors, doubles the likelihood of the disease with colorectal cancer.
Colorectal cancer develops with mutations of intestinal cells with the concomitant acquisition of malignant properties. As a rule, the pathological process begins with the formation of polyps.In the presence of any provoking factors( intestinal diseases, weakened immune system, etc.), the active development of the oncological process begins.
Symptoms of colorectal cancer
Colorectal cancer specialists are rightly called one of the most dangerous and cunning types of cancer.The fact is that this pathology for a long time does not show itself any specific signs, so that the patient does not even guess about his condition.
Important! Only with a significant increase in the size of the tumor tumor or the beginning of the process of metastasis is a painful symptomatology.That is why it is so important to be able to determine the first anxiety signs that indicate colorectal cancer.
At the initial stages of the pathological process, the following symptoms can be observed in the patient:
- pain sensations localized in the abdominal region, with a tendency to increase when filling the intestine;
- soreness of the defecation process;
- appearance of a small amount of mucous or bloody impurities in feces;
- false urge to defecate;
- sensation of incomplete emptying of the intestine.
Note: Already with the appearance of some of the above non-specific signs, it is necessary to consult a specialist!Diagnosis of colorectal cancer at the initial stages of development significantly facilitates treatment and makes predictions more favorable!
With further progression of colorectal cancer, the patients have already manifested more disturbing clinical signs characteristic of the so-called tumor intoxication:
- weakness, asthenia;
- slowed reactions;
- increased fatigue;
- attacks of dizziness;
- sleep disorders;
- a permanent lack of appetite, anorexia;
- overdrying of mucous membranes;
- fever, febrile condition;
- pallor, cyanosis of the skin;
- nausea and vomiting;
- weakened immune system( increased tendency to infectious, bacterial, inflammatory diseases);
- severe anemia;
- sharp weight loss;
- rectal bleeding.
Important! If you have such symptoms as bloody impurities in stool and pain during bowel movement, you should definitely consult a doctor!Specialists also recommend that persons in the age group over 50 years of age undergo annual screening for preventive purposes.
Species of pathology
Specialists identify the following varieties of colorectal cancer:
- Adenocarcinoma is the most widespread and accounts for about 80% of all types of colorectal cancer.The tumor is formed from glandular tissues.
- Skinous is a rare type of disease in which a neoplasm consists mainly of an intercellular fluid with a small number of cellular elements.
- Melanoma - tumor formation is formed from pigment cell structures and is localized in the region of the anus.
- Ring-like cell - a tumor in its appearance resembles a ring with a stone. This form of pathology is considered the most dangerous and often leads to the death of the patient already in the first years of development of the oncological process.
- Solid colorectal cancer - is formed in the glandular tissues.Tumor growth consists of low-grade cellular elements.
- Squamous cell is the most prone to early metastasis processes.Localized tumor tumor in the region of the lower intestine, anus.
Screening for colorectal cancer
Diagnosis of oncological intestinal diseases begins with the fact that a specialist examines a patient, talks to him, assesses the symptoms and results of the collected anamnesis.
In addition, the following types of diagnostic tests are assigned to patients:
- laboratory analysis of feces;
- blood test, including the presence of oncomarkers.
After the oncological disease has been diagnosed, patients are assigned tomographic examination of the abdominal cavity and chest, necessary to detect possible metastasis.Ultrasound examination of the liver is performed for the same purpose.
Methods for treating colorectal cancer
The most effective treatment for colorectal cancer is surgical intervention.
Note: In 80% of cases, timely operation allows to achieve positive therapeutic results, without relapse and metastasis.
During surgical intervention, specialists remove the tumor tumor together with the affected area of the rectum .In particularly severe and neglected cases, there may be a need for surgical removal of the entire rectum.After this, an artificial hole is created in the anterior abdominal wall, designed to remove the intestinal contents in a special kalospriemnik.
Before and after surgery, patients are given a course of radiation therapy or chemotherapy to prevent further growth of the tumor and the cessation of metastatic processes!
Metastases for colorectal cancer
Metastatic colorectal cancer is one of the most serious and dangerous diseases that can not be cured.The average survival rate of patients with this diagnosis is about one year.
To prolong the patient's life and to alleviate his condition, the following therapeutic methods are used:
- resection of the affected intestinal tract;
- surgical removal of metastases;
- Radiation therapy.
- immunotherapy, aimed at activating the immune system, for the successful fight of the organism with pathological cellular structures.
In the treatment started on the 1st stage of the oncological process, medical forecasts are quite favorable.At 3 stages of cancer, survival rates are already about 40%, and in the last stage - 4 stages less than 5%.
In addition, it is necessary to mention the possible complications arising from this disease .
Against the backdrop of colorectal cancer, the following pathologies can develop in patients:
- internal bleeding;
- metastasis to neighboring organs;
- stony stone;
- intestinal obstruction.
These diseases also pose a threat to the life of the patient and require adequate, timely treatment.In general, the earlier the colorectal cancer is diagnosed and the treatment is started, the higher the chances for survival and complete recovery of the patient!
The main way to prevent colorectal cancer is to adhere to the principles of healthy eating.Patients are recommended to limit the consumption of alcoholic beverages, fatty, meat, fried foods, baking and fast food .It is important to take care that in the daily menu there is food rich in vegetable fiber, namely, greens, fruits, fresh vegetables.
Patients suffering from polyposis, intestinal diseases that occur in chronic form, are recommended to visit the proctologist at least once a year.Preventive examinations and screening are shown to older people.
In addition, to prevent colorectal cancer, the following recommendations of specialists will help:
- Include vegetable oils and fermented milk products in your menu.
- Drink as much liquid as possible( at least 2 liters throughout the day).
- Timely fight with constipation, if necessary, use laxatives and cleansing enemas.
- Timely removal of benign tumor tumors.
- Completely treat intestinal diseases, following all the recommendations of specialists.
- Refuse from smoking and other bad habits.
- Drive a lively lifestyle, do exercises, go to the gym, walk on foot.
- Strengthen the immune system, take vitamin-mineral complexes, immunomodulating drugs.
- Refrain from the abuse of alcoholic beverages.
- Keep track of your weight, timely fight with extra pounds.
Patients with hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer are recommended to take Aspirin and anesthetics, which reduce the risk of developing malignant tumors in the intestine.Just do not forget to coordinate the medication with your doctor!
Elena Sovinskaya, medical reviewer