What you can eat with type 2 diabetes mellitus
High blood glucose is the main indicator of type 2 diabetes mellitus.This significantly worsens the quality of life of the patient, provokes the development of atherosclerosis, has a negative effect on the state of blood vessels.Diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes involves compliance with a clear diet - there is a list of permitted and prohibited products for patients with this diagnosis.Table of contents: General dietary rules for type 2 diabetes What you can eat with type 2 diabetes What you can not eat in type 2 diabetes Type of dietary fiber in diet for diabetes mellitus type 2
General rules for diabetic type 2 nutritionWe recommend reading:
The diet in this disease is diverse - there is no need to starve and eat only cabbage and oatmeal on the water.The main purpose of the diet for type 2 diabetes is to reduce the load on the pancreas and get rid of excess weight.
General dietary rules:
- The nutrient balance must be well balanced - the ideal proportions are considered to be 16%: 24%: 60%, which means proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- Caloric value of the diet for a day should be calculated by a dietitian - this indicator is individual and depends on the motor activity and overall energy consumption of the patient.When calculating the daily calories are taken into account the weight of the patient, age, professional activity, general health.
- All refined carbohydrates from the diet of a patient with type 2 diabetes are excluded - their role is performed by sugar substitutes.
- The patient must necessarily adhere to a diet that is enriched with vitamins, micronutrients and nutritional fibers.
- Exactly half the amount of animal fats consumed decreases.
- You need to eat at least 4 times a day, observing the same time.Moreover, every meal should be adjusted with the use of sugar-reducing drugs and physical exertion.What you can eat with type 2 diabetes We recommend to read:
There is a list of certain dishes and products that doctors not only allow to use as part of a diet for diabetes mellitus type 2, and even recommend. These include:
- broths - from fish and meat of low-fat varieties, they should be "secondary";
- vegetable soups;
- cucumbers, radish, zucchini, cabbage, lettuce, tomato, eggplant - these vegetables can be consumed in type 2 diabetes in unlimited quantities, both in raw form and after heat treatment;
- potatoes, beets and carrots - the maximum allowable daily amount of these vegetables with food is 200 g;
- bread on the table of patients with type 2 diabetes should only be special diabetic, rye or protein-bran - any of them can be consumed per day no more than 200 g;
- poultry and meat of low-fat varieties - a maximum of 100 g per day and exclusively in baked, boiled form;
- fish lean varieties - a maximum of 150 grams per day, it is advisable to prepare from it steam chops or jellied;
- from porridges it is better to cook barley, oat and buckwheat, and pearl and millet porridge is best used rarely and in small quantities;
- eggs can be consumed no more than 2 pieces per week - such a restriction is imposed on them by dietitians because of the high content of cholesterol in their composition, eggs can be cooked in any way, but it is better to refuse the classical eggs;
- a day allowed to consume 400 ml( this is the maximum possible) of fermented milk products - kefir, yogurt, natural yogurt;
- as a drink, you can safely enter the menu black and / or green tea, you can add milk to it, not strong coffee;
- sometimes, with a strong desire, you can consume a single serving( 150 g) of legumes per day, but on that day it will be necessary to completely eliminate the bread from the ration;
- curd with a small fraction of fat can be consumed at least every day and in any form( natural, in syrniki, vareniki and so on), but in quantities not exceeding 200 grams.
What can not be eaten in diabetes mellitus type 2
To reduce the burden on the pancreas and "keep" the state of health within the norm, patients with a diagnosed disease need to exclude from their diet some foods and dishes.And, do not limit, namely, exclude!
- Any "
- " baked goods made of easily digestible carbohydrates;
- cream ice cream;
- cakes and pastries with cream;
- any sweets;
- Broths from fatty varieties of meat and fish, "primary".
- Vegetables prepared by marinating or pickling.
- Any pasta.Rice and semolina cereals.
- Sharp, fried, salted, smoked dishes.
- Culinary, animal fats.
- Any sauces - mayonnaise, cheese, ketchup.
- Fish fatty varieties in general, and smoked, dried and fried even lean varieties.Sweet curd cheese curds, sour cream, cheese, cream and brynza.
- Any alcoholic beverages.
The role of dietary fiber in nutrition in type 2 diabetes
What is considered to be dietary fiber?These are food particles of plant origin that do not require treatment with specific digestive enzymes and are not absorbed in the digestive system.Doctors recommend to introduce dietary fiber into the diet of diabetics, because they have a sugar-reducing and lipid-lowering effects, are well perceived by the body and contribute to weight loss.In addition, dietary fiber slows the absorption of fats and glucose in the intestine, reduces the level of insulin intake, gives the impression of full saturation, which automatically leads to a decrease in appetite and, accordingly, the weight of the patient.
What contains dietary fiber:
- coarse bran;
- oatmeal and rye flour;
Doctors recommend adhering to a daily dose of dietary fiber in the amount of 30-50 g and it is highly desirable to distribute this amount as follows:
- 51% of the total must be vegetables;
- 40% - cereals;9% - berries, fruits and mushrooms.
According to statistics, if a patient with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus adheres to the recommendations and appointments of a dietitian, given in this material, his condition is normalized, blood sugar level is reduced.There were cases when, in full compliance with the rules of dietary nutrition against the background of diagnosed diabetes, the sugar level in the patient's blood was within the normal range.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category