Diet after intestinal surgery
Operations on the intestine inevitably affect the digestive process.Immediately after the operation, the absorption of nutrients( proteins, fats, carbohydrates) from the digestive tract does not occur.Therefore, in the first day after the operation, the nutrition is parenteral.In the future, the patient begins to eat independently.But it is extremely important to follow the diet and expand your diet gradually.Table of contents: Food after intestinal surgery First stage of diet Second stage of diet Third stage of diet Fourth stage of diet
Nutrition after intestinal surgery
Intestinal surgery is resorted to when medical treatment is not sufficient. So, operations on the small intestine are carried out with such diseases as polyps, small intestinal adhesions, Meckel diverticulum, short bowel syndrome, mesenteric thrombosis.
It should be noted that surgical treatment of the small intestine is still rarely resorted to.But operations on the large intestine - it's not uncommon. Operative intervention is resorted to, starting with banal appendicitis, ending with diverticulosis and neoplasms of the large intestine.Such a disease as intestinal obstruction also often requires surgical treatment.
Regardless of the reason for surgical intervention after surgery, the patient is prescribed a therapeutic diet.In the early days, the diet is as strict as possible, but as the intestines are restored, the diet is gradually expanded.
The first stage of the diet and menu after intestinal surgery
After the operation, while a person comes out of anesthesia - he is shown hunger.With a strong thirst, you can only moisten your lips with water .Of course, the patient is not completely deprived of nutrients, because the body needs to recover from the operation.Only all the necessary substances are injected into the patient parenterally, that is, through intravenous drippers.
On the second day, the patient is credited with the therapeutic diet No. 0a, on which it is necessary to hold out until the fifth postoperative day.The basis of diet No. 0a is liquid food, which is necessary for mechanical shaking of the operated intestine .The patient is allowed to use a decoction of rose hips, non-fried broth, rice decoction.You can also prepare liquid and semi-liquid dishes from non-acidic berries: all kinds of compotes, jelly, jelly.
You need to eat small portions, but regularly 7-8 times a day. Diet No. 0a is a low calorie and therefore is not capable of providing the entire energy demand of the body.That is why during this period, parenteral nutrition is also prescribed.
The second stage of the diet and menu after intestinal surgery
On the fifth day of the postoperative period, the patient is transferred to a surgical diet number 1a.The patient will have to eat by the rules of this diet for a week and a half.The basis of this diet - semi-liquid, wiped dishes.Nutrition is necessary six times a day, the amount of servings per meal is not more than 400 grams. This therapeutic diet is called physiologically complete.That is, the surgical diet number 1a is quite caloric and nutrition according to this scheme provides the body with the necessary substances to the fullest.
What kind of dishes can you eat at this stage of the postoperative period?
- Liquid mashed cereals;
- Cereal soups with vegetable broth;
- Non-rich meat broths;
- Dishes from eggs: steam omelet, soft-boiled eggs;
- Low-fat varieties of meat and fish prepared in the form of steam souffle, mashed potatoes;
- All the same compotes, jelly, jelly from berries.
At this stage, any solid, solid meals, milk and sour cream, soda, grape and vegetable juices are absolutely prohibited.
Sample menu for the day:
- 8.00 - rice porridge, soft-boiled egg;
- 11.00 - berry jelly;
- 14.00-oat soup, chicken soufflé;
- 17.00 - fruit jelly;
- 20.00 - buckwheat porridge, fish souffle;
- 22.00 - broth of dog rose.
The third stage of the diet and menu after intestinal surgery
In those cases, if the recovery processes of the gastrointestinal tract are favorable, the person is transferred to a surgical diet number 1.Follow this diet for two weeks.At this stage, you can already eat not only soft in consistency dishes, but also gradually introduce into the diet boiled chicken and fish in the form of pieces. Power factor - 5-6 times a day .The dishes should be extremely warm.
What kind of dishes can you eat without fear at this stage?
- Dry bread, crackers, biscuit biscuits;
- Soups on a weak broth with the addition of cereals, vermicelli;Boiled lean meat and fish in the form of mashed potatoes, soufflé, cutlet.
- .Chicken and fish are allowed as a piece;
- Low-fat milk products;
- Eggs in the form of a steam omelet or cooked soft-boiled;
- Groats, vermicelli;
- Some vegetables( potatoes, carrots, cauliflower, pumpkin, zucchini) - exclusively boiled and wiped;
- Sweet berries and fruits in boiled and baked form;
- It is allowed honey, jam;
- You can add a little creamy and vegetable oil to the dish.
Important! Fat varieties of meat and fish, rich broths, mushrooms, fresh bread and pastries, all kinds of canned food and smoked products, pickles, dairy products with high fat content, sour berries and fruits, soda are excluded from the diet.
The approximate one-day menu is as follows:
- 8.00 - steam omelet, wiped buckwheat porridge;
- 11.00- baked apple with honey, berry compote;
- 14.00 - low-fat soup with chicken fillet, beef souffle, carrot puree;
- 17.00 -Casel berry, crackers;
- 20.00 - boiled lean fish with a piece, mashed potatoes;
- 22.00 - kefir with a low percentage of fat.
The fourth stage of the diet and menu after intestinal surgery
As the digestive tract is restored, it is necessary to add products of a more solid consistency to the diet.For this task, the therapeutic diet # 4c is perfect.
This diet is assigned as a transitional stage to the general nutrition.Diet is inherently physiologically complete.At the same time, the amount of salt is limited in the diet and products that intensify fermentation in the intestine are completely excluded.All dishes are boiled or baked.
By and large, the basis of the No. 4c diet is Surgical Diet No. 1. However, diet No. 4c implies the introduction of unmilled food in sufficient quantities.So meat dishes should be mostly chopped or in the form of a piece.Also, gradually introduce into the diet fresh sweet fruits and berries, namely: apples, pears, bananas, strawberries. You can also use natural juices, diluted with water.But at the same time grape juice is banned.Also, fresh bread and pastries, fatty meat and fish varieties, rich broths, smoked products, canned food, beans are excluded from the diet.
Sample menu for the day:
- 8.00 - oatmeal porridge, steam omelette;
- 11.00 - curd with low fat content;
- 14.00 - vegetable soup, chicken cutlets, rice;
- 17.00 - sweet fresh apples;
- 20.00 - meat steamed roll with carrots, mashed potatoes;
- 22.00 - kefir with a low percentage of fat.
The length of stay on the medical diet No. 4c is discussed with the doctor.In case of well-being, the patient soon switches to normal food, and of course it is necessary to avoid harmful foods.
Grigorova Valeria, doctor, medical reviewer