How is syphilis transmitted?
Jul 02, 2018
Syphilis is a chronic venereal disease characterized by severe pathological lesions of virtually all systems and organs.In neglected forms leads to irreversible consequences and disability.Syphilis is the third most common sexually transmitted infection.Table of contents: Ways of infection with syphilis How is syphilis manifested?Risk group
Knowing how the disease is transmitted, you can protect yourself from infection.
Ways of infection with syphilis
Neither skin nor mucous membranes are a serious barrier to penetration of pale spirochetes into the body.The bacterium is able to penetrate the human body through microtraumas of the mucosa or skin.From the moment of infection in all the bodily fluids of the patient, the spirochete is contained, which means that they pose a danger to other persons in contact with them.
The main ways of infection with syphilis:
- Sexual way. Infection occurs with any kind of unprotected sex.This is the main way of transferring syphilis, as vaginal secretion and sperm contain a significant number of bacteria.
In women, the probability of infection with syphilis is much higher than , since the area for spirochaete penetration is greater, and it is easier to get microtraumas of the vaginal mucosa during sexual intercourse.In men, syphilis is diagnosed more often in connection with the popularization of homosexual relationships.More than 60% of homosexuals are infected with syphilis.ImportantSyphilis infection occurs even with a single sexual encounter in 50% of cases.
Spirochaeta is capable of being transmitted to another person at any stage of the disease.
Even during the incubation period, when a person still does not suspect the problem, he can infect others by entering into sexual contact with them.
- Household way. Less common, but quite possible among family members of an infected person.The bacterium does not last long for vitality on personal care items, so this method is rare. Infection can occur through:
The viability of treponema increases the wet environment.The possibility of becoming infected increases with the secondary period of the disease.Infection by handshake and physical contact is possible if there are open syphilitic ulcers on the patient's body and microtraumas of the skin in a healthy person.ImportantTransmission of infection through saliva is possible with syphilitic rashes on the lips or in the mouth and the presence of mucosal and skin damage in a healthy person.Airborne pale spirochaete is not transmitted. A household mode of transmission is possible if basic hygiene rules are violated.
- Through blood or infection by blood transfusion.With blood transfusion, infection is almost impossible, since before a blood sample the donor undergoes a thorough examination.
More often, infection occurs when one syringe is used to consume narcotic drugs. In everyday life, this can happen when using manicure or shaving accessories together.From mother to child.
- . This method of infection is called vertical.Infection occurs during pregnancy, which can lead to fetal death in the womb or stillbirth.Most often, miscarriage occurs during the fifth to sixth month of pregnancy.
If a child does not die in the womb, he is usually born prematurely with signs of congenital syphilis .The disease affects all the systems and organs of the child.
In addition, infection of the child is possible when passing through the birth canal, due to contact with the blood of the mother.Caesarean section is used to prevent infection.
It is also possible to transfer the bacterium to a child during breastfeeding.Therefore, children born from patients with syphilis of mothers are fed artificially.
- Professional way. It is especially important to know how you can get syphilis while performing duties, to medical workers.
ImportantIf the hands of the health care worker are damaged by tools, during manipulations and procedures, a preventative course of treatment is performed to prevent infection.
- when injuring the hands of a pathologist at the autopsy of a corpse infected with syphilis;
- during surgery with damage to the hands of the surgeon and contact of the wound with the blood of the patient;
- laboratory technicians on contact with various patient substrates during the study;
- The dentist can get infected through the blood and saliva of the patient if there is damage to the skin on the hands;
- Obstetricians-gynecologists when examining and conducting labor through vaginal discharge, as well as the blood of a woman and a baby.
How is syphilis manifested?
Symptoms of syphilis depend on the stage of the disease, as well as on the timing of the initiation of therapy and its adequacy to .The incubation period ranges from three weeks to one and a half months.
The first symptoms are manifested in the form of single skin lesions that arise in the place of contact a.In medicine they are called "hard chancre", which is a round, dense ulcer.A week after its appearance, the lymph nodes increase.
Secondary form occurs two to three months after infection.Primary foci of syphilis disappear, and a rash appears on the mucous membranes and skin.Sometimes it can be accompanied by mild indisposition, sore throat or fever.After a few days these manifestations disappear.
In the absence of treatment, syphilis flows into a chronic form that is characterized by the complete absence of traits.It can last for many years.
At the last stage, multiple progressive lesions occur that affect all systems and organs.
The group at increased risk of infection includes:
- children of mothers infected with syphilis;
- persons leading a promiscuous sexual life;
- addicts, alcoholics.
Knowledge of the ways of infection, serious attitude towards one's health, use of contraceptives during sexual intercourse, observance of elementary rules of personal hygiene and rejection of bad habits, will help to avoid infection with syphilis.
Radevich Igor Tadeushevich, a sexually andrologist of the 1st category