Secondary syphilis: symptoms, treatment and prevention methods
Jul 02, 2018
A period completely corresponding to the generalization of the infectious process is called secondary syphilis.The bacterium, which is localized in the lymph nodes, begins to penetrate into the bloodstream and with the flow of blood spreads to other vital organs, as well as new areas of the skin.Table of contents: Periods of pathology Symptoms of secondary syphilis Differential diagnosis of secondary syphilis Treatment of secondary syphilis Prevention
Specific symptoms characteristic of the disease appear on all areas of the human skin, most of the mucous membranes and certain internal organs.
Periods of pathology
Secondary syphilis develops in three periods: fresh, latent( latent) and recurrent.
The fresh period of begins to develop immediately after the primary.It manifests itself in the form of intensification of the rash and preservation of the remains of the solid chancre.Without adequate treatment, symptoms can persist for up to four months.At the end of this period the ailment flows into the
After three months, the secondary recurrent syphilis begins to develop.The rash on the skin is not as plentiful as in the fresh period.There may be a manifestation of alopecia( hair loss). A characteristic feature of this period is syphilitic leukoderma. In the neck area, unpigmented spots appear.Gradually, their number increases. If the pathology is not treated, it again goes into a latent period.
As the secondary syphilis develops, a polymorphous rash appears in the skin in the form of pustular, roseous and papular elements.
Roseous elements, as a rule, are located on the neck, so this symptom is called " Venus Necklace ".Papules are located on the chest, soles, palms, in the perinatal area and genitals.
Symptoms of secondary syphilis
The main symptoms of a general type of secondary syphilis( features of pathological manifestations):
- Unspecified desquamation;
- contours are clear;
- structure is dense;
- pathological elements have a dark red color;
- subjective sensations are not noted;
- elements may disappear spontaneously.
- High infectiousness of secondary syphilis;
- benign course;
- abruptly positive serological reaction;
- with timely treatment pathological syphilis quickly disappear on their own.
In secondary syphilis, the following types of rashes are distinguished:
- rose-syphilis syphilis. With secondary syphilis, these symptoms manifest themselves most often.This indicates that the infection spreads through the body.On the skin round or oval spots of pale pink shade without sharp outlines are formed.The maximum diameter is up to one and a half centimeters.The spots do not rise above the surface of the epidermis and tend to merge.Primarily localized on the neck and the sides of the trunk;
- papular syphillis. Flexible rounded nodules, called papules, are formed.At first, the elements are smooth and have a natural shine.However, after a couple of days, the surface of the formations begins to peel off.Papules can form on any part of the skin;
- palmar-plantar syphilid. The most common type of papular syphilis.Thickened nodules that resemble corns are formed on the surface of the palms and soles.As the increase, the formation begins to crack, resulting in a circumference forming a specific curb.Because pathological formations are similar to calluses, a person does not consult a doctor;
- syphilitic leukoderma. This manifestation is extremely rare.Pathologically, formations form on the neck, so this symptom was called "Venus's Necklace."Light oval foci are formed against a background of brownish darkening of the skin.
Differential diagnosis of secondary syphilis
Diagnosis of secondary syphilis consists of a wide range of skin diseases and acute infections. Roseous rash is often confused with rashes with typhus and typhoid, rubella, measles.But unlike the listed ailments, the general condition of the patient is not broken , and the symptoms of the defeat of internal organs are completely absent.
Sphilides differentiate with skin diseases, which are accompanied by pain and marked symptoms of skin inflammation.In order for to distinguish them from each other, an immunological and microscopic examination of the scraping / discharge with papules is used.With syphilis, they contain a large number of pale treponem.
Syphilitic alopecia is differentiated with androgenic alopecia and fungal lesions of the scalp.In the latter case, the content of sex hormones in the blood is within normal limits.With secondary syphilis, the scalp does not peel, and there are no signs of inflammation.
Treatment of secondary syphilis
Complex therapy of pathology is aimed at eliminating the underlying disease and elements of the rash.
Introduction of water-soluble penicillins allows to maintain the optimal concentration of antibiotic in the bloodstream.
Specific therapy is carried out 24 days after the disease was detected.The drug is injected into the patient's body every three hours by .Therefore, it is advisable to conduct treatment in a hospital, where doctors can monitor the patient's condition.If a patient has an allergy to penicillin, he is prescribed alternative drugs.
Together with the main therapy, they treat diseases that have developed against the background of secondary syphilis.
To improve immunity, prescribe immunostimulating drugs.
In addition, specialists adjust the diet of the patient, so that he with food half an hour all the necessary vitamins, minerals and other useful substances.
The main measures aimed at the prevention of syphilis :
- use of contraceptives during sex;
- medicinal preventive treatment;
- regularly donate blood for a serological examination, and consult a doctor;
- urgent prevention of syphilis.Prophylactic complex, which includes: washing the genitals with water and soap and subsequent treatment with disinfectants, immediate urination.After this, a solution of protargol or chlorhexine is injected into the urethra;
- each person should use only personal hygiene products, and when visiting a sauna or a bath, use only personal belongings.
Compliance with these simple rules will help to prevent the possibility of infection.
Radevich Igor Tadeushevich, doctor of sexopathologist-andrologist of the 1st category