Viral hepatitis B and C: symptoms, causes, treatment
Jul 02, 2018
At embraces, kisses, household contacts, infection with viral hepatitis does not occur.However, close sick people should take into account that the source of dangerous viruses are shaving accessories, toothbrushes, manicure and pedicure tools of the patient, as well as other items that get blood.
Taking into account the transmission routes of these infections, the following risk groups for parenteral hepatitis infection can be identified:
- Injecting addicts.
- People with promiscuity.
- Sexual partners of patients with hepatitis.
- Relatives and cohabitants of patients with hepatitis.
- Medical workers.
- Homosexuals and people who prefer perverted forms of sex( with perverted sexual contacts, there is a high probability of trauma to the mucous membranes and, accordingly, infection).
- Children born from sick with hepatitis of mothers.
- People with ailments that require blood transfusions or hemodialysis.
- A person who often subjects his body to tattooing and piercing.
Symptoms of parenteral hepatitis
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C symptoms are similar.From the moment the virus enters the body before the appearance of signs of the disease in hepatitis B it takes an average of 2-6 months, with C - 1,5-2 months.The onset of the disease can be acute or latent.
When the acute onset, the following signs of hepatitis appear:
- yellowness of the skin and eye proteins;
- darkening of urine;
- chair lightening;
- high body temperature;
- weakness, poor health;
The outcome of acute hepatitis is either complete recovery, or the transition of the disease into a chronic form, which is largely determined by the patient's immunity.If infection of hepatitis occurs in childhood, the risk of chronic infection is much higher.For example, in children of the first year of life in 80-90% of cases develop chronic hepatitis.This just explains the need for vaccination against hepatitis B immediately after birth.
Quite often, in view of the asymptomatic onset of the ailment, the patient learns of his condition when a chronic inflammatory process in the liver leads to an increase in the organ and a disruption of his function.Thus there are unpleasant painful sensations in the right hypochondrium( because of a stretching of a cover of a liver), a nausea, frustration of digestion.Biochemical blood test of such patients will also have corresponding deviations.Therefore, if the described symptoms are disturbed or during the examination, changes in the biochemical parameters of the blood displaying the liver status are revealed( even if there are no complaints), it is necessary to be inspected for viral hepatitis.
Complications of viral hepatitis represent a potential danger to the life of the patient.Such complications include :
- Cirrhosis of the liver, with all its consequences - ascites, portal hypertension, hemorrhages.
- Hepatic failure.
- Liver cancer.
To prevent the development of these conditions, people at risk should regularly check blood for hepatitis.
Parenteral hepatitis and pregnancy
Due to the fact that the child can get infected from the mother with viral hepatitis, all pregnant women are checked for the presence of HBV antigens in the blood, and women from the risk groups are additionally examined for hepatitis C. Infection of the fetus from the sick mother is possible in uteroWith placental abruption and procedures that violate the integrity of the fetal bladder( eg, amniocentesis).In most cases, infection occurs during childbirth, so doctors advise such patients to do caesarean section, which is considered safer in such situations.The final choice depends on the status of the woman and the activity of the infectious process.
Immediately after childbirth, infants with hepatitis B mums are given immunoglobulin and vaccinated according to a special scheme.With hepatitis C, there is no such possibility, so children are regularly examined to detect the onset of the disease in time.
Breastfeeding in the presence of a mother of viral hepatitis B or C is not contraindicated.
Diagnosis of hepatitis B
To confirm that the patient has hepatitis B , and to determine its form( acute or chronic), a special blood test for markers of hepatitis.These markers are quite numerous and they are not immediately searched for.The very first diagnostic test is the determination of HBsAg, the surface antigen of HBV, which is present in the blood of both patients and carriers.
If HBsAg is detected, the patient is assigned other studies - PCR HBV( DNA virus scan), HBeAg, antibodies, etc.Based on the results of these analyzes, it is determined whether there is a disease and at what stage the infectious process is located.
Markers evaluation is performed as follows:
Diagnosis of hepatitis C
At the first stage of diagnosis, antibodies to HCV are detected.If they are, PCR HCV is performed( detection of RNA of the virus is qualitative).The positive result of this test confirms the presence of infection in the body.The next step is to determine the viral load( HCV quantitative quantitative PCR) and the hepatitis C genotype . In addition, the liver of a patient must be examined with the help of biopsy or elastometry( a non-invasive method that allows to determine the degree of hepatic fibrosis).All these data are necessary for choosing the tactics of treatment.
Treatment of hepatitis B
In the acute form of the disease, specific antiviral treatment is not performed.Patients are recommended diet, rest, detoxification therapy.If chronic hepatitis is detected, antiviral therapy can prevent the development of cirrhosis, improve the patient's condition, but does not guarantee full recovery. Diagram of treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis B includes:
- A diet with a minimum content of animal fats and a high content of lipotropic products( vegetable oils, low-fat dairy products, fish, pectin vegetables and fruits)Alcohol.
- Antiviral therapy.Medications are used on the basis of tenofovir, entecavir and interferons.
Features of treating hepatitis C
For hepatitis C, diet and alcohol withdrawal are also important.Standard treatment regimens for the disease involve the administration of pegylated interferons and ribavirin.These drugs are not always well tolerated by patients, especially with prolonged admission.
A real breakthrough in medical science has been the new drugs for hepatitis C( Ladipasvir, Sofosbuvir, etc.), but studies in this direction are still ongoing.
Prevention of viral hepatitis
For hepatitis B the most effective preventive measure is vaccination. It is carried out according to the following scheme: the child receives three doses of the drug - in the first days of life, in the month and six months.Immunity is formed almost in all vaccinated and persists for 10 years or more.Revaccination every 10 years is carried out in the presence of indications( for example, if a person is at risk).Adults should also be vaccinated.
Other measures for the prevention of hepatitis B are the same as for hepatitis C, from which there is no vaccination: protected sex, use of disposable syringes, minimizing visits to manicure salons, piercing, tattooing, observance of safety measures at home( for close patients with hepatitis), Responsible attitude of medical personnel to their duties( for disinfection of tools), etc.
You will receive more detailed information on the ways of infection with hepatitis B and C, methods of diagnosis and treatment by viewing this video review:
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist