Tertiary syphilis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Jul 03, 2018
Infection is caused by the bacterium pale treponema.The source of infection is a person infected with syphilis.
Today, tertiary, or late syphilis is extremely rare.Basically, it affects patients who have not completed or have not completed a course of treatment.This form of syphilis is practically not contagious.However, the disease can result in a fatal outcome.Contents: main methods of syphilis concept of tertiary syphilis The factors leading to the development of tertiary syphilis The symptoms of tertiary syphilis diagnosis of tertiary syphilis treatment of tertiary syphilis Complications of tertiary syphilis
main methods of syphilis
There are several ways infection:
- In 90% of cases, the disease is transmitted in any type of sexual contact.
- When blood is transfused from a donor infected with an infection.
- From an infected mother to a child during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
- Through saliva.
- When using one syringe.
- Through the medical tools.
The greatest threat is borne by patients with a primary form of the disease.Patients with tertiary syphilis infect others extremely rarely.To the disease began to develop, it is enough to hit a couple of bacteria on the damaged skin area or wound.
In an infected patient, pale treponema is found in cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, male seed, lymph, tears and breast milk.
The concept of tertiary syphilis
Syphilis is an infectious-venereal disease, the symptoms of which depend on the stage of development.
The disease develops in several stages:
- primary lasts two to three months.At this stage, the patient develops a solid chancre in the area of infection;
- secondary period lasts from three to four years.At this stage, the patient's body becomes covered with a rash;
- with tertiary syphilis the infection penetrates deep inside and affects the internal organs, brain and bones. This period occurs approximately seven years after infection.
Factors leading to the development of tertiary syphilis
- Infection occurred in children or the elderly;
- not started on time treatment;
- patient did not complete the course of treatment;
- frequent change of sexual partners;
- addiction and alcoholism;
- strongly reduced immunity;
- all kinds of unprotected sex.
Disease of tertiary syphilis in half the cases leads to death. This is due to the fact that during this period the tissues in which the granulomas are located are destroyed and squeezed.
Symptoms of tertiary syphilis
This form of the disease affects almost all systems and organs of man.
The disease can develop for decades.During this period, the patient may lose hearing, sight and even lose his mind.
Tertiary syphilis can be active or hidden.
The main characteristics of the disease:
- Buccal syphil. It appears as a cyanotic bone with a smooth surface.There are hillocks in groups and do not merge with each other.After about two weeks they turn into purulent ulcers of a rounded shape.Gradually, the wounds heal, leaving a scar with a hem, in place of which new syphilis do not develop.Ulcers can form on any part of the skin.Mostly on the lower back, hands and face.
- Syphilitic gum. Represents a nodule in adipose tissue, bones or muscles.The formation is spherical, dense, up to two centimeters in diameter.The skin around becomes purple.When exposed, causes mild pain or discomfort.There are nodules singly, most often on the hips, head or groin.Education goes into an abscess, continuing to increase.Gradually the ulcer is cleared of pus and heals, leaving behind a dense, in the middle elongated, star-shaped scar.Gunma can cause severe pain in the muscles and bone tissues, affecting the nerve endings.
- Neurosyphilis. Cases, vessels and brain tissue are affected.At the initial stage, there may be an increase in body temperature, dizziness, nausea, headache, photophobia and vomiting.Then comes atrophy of the muscles, blindness and hallucinations begin.In the last stage, dementia occurs.
- Late roseola. Characteristic for the secondary stage, but also in the Tertiary period, spots with a diameter of up to eight centimeters, light pink in color can be observed.As a rule, they are located symmetrically on the waist, buttocks and thighs.
- Lesion of mucous membranes. Appears in the form of ulcers and sores in the sky, in the nose and other places.In the process of disintegration, bloody mink and pus are formed.When the patient suffers a nasal in the voice, the contents of the mouth fall into the nose.Breathing is difficult, pain can occur.
Diagnosis of tertiary syphilis
The disease is diagnosed based on the clinical picture and results of laboratory tests:
- PCR .The method makes it possible to detect the remains of the DNA of a bacterium in an infected organism;
- REEF .Using the analysis, the presence of pale treponema is determined;
- serological method .Allows to determine the presence of immunoglobulins to pale treponema in the blood;
- Bacteriographic examination .Applied to identify pale treponema in human fluids;
- biopsy of syphilis ;
- with neurosyphilide is prescribed examination of cerebrospinal fluid .It allows to determine the protein content, the number of monocytes and lymphocytes.
of various organs and ECG are also prescribed.If necessary, consult an oculist, gastroenterologist, neurologist, cardiologist and otolaryngologist.
Treatment of tertiary syphilis
Late syphilis is treated exclusively in a medical facility. Self-medication can lead to the most unfortunate consequences. It is almost impossible to eliminate the disease and its symptoms at this period. In general, the treatment is aimed at preventing the development of infection and improving the quality of life of the patient.
Compulsory use of antibacterial medicines of the latest generations and different groups, as well as iodine containing preparations .
The first step in the patient is a two-week course of erythromycin and tetracycline. Then starts taking a penicillin drug.
Usually appoint eight courses.Bismuth, mercury preparations and waspsol take between the sixth and seventh courses.With lesions of the liver and kidneys, bismuth is replaced with penicillin.In the eighth year, only biyohinol is used.
The number of courses, the dosage and duration of therapy is prescribed by your doctor.In general, with tertiary syphilis, the interval between courses is one and a half months.
Together with this, a therapy is carried out aimed at increasing the body's resistance to infections.Based on the degree of infection, the stage of the disease, the state of systems and organs, age and physical condition, the specialist prescribes a dose of immunostimulating and enzyme preparations, vitamins.
Additional measures are being taken to heal the skin lesions of .If gums and other formations are not treated in a timely manner, a septum between the mouth and nose may fall out.
An aqueous solution of penicillin is used for the treatment of eyeball and neurosyphilis lesions.If the patient is allergic to it, the drug is replaced with ceftriaxone.
Patients with afflicted cartilages and joints, severe pain due to dorsal dryness are prescribed finlepsin and analgesics.
During the treatment, specialists monitor the condition of the patient's body.Regularly make biochemical tests, urine and blood tests, ECG and ultrasound.
After completing the course of treatment, the patient is observed for another five years .If during this period the patient has no symptoms of the disease, it is considered that the person is completely healthy.
Tertiary syphilis is a very neglected stage.Treatment will only help slow down the effect on the body and increase life expectancy.Complete recovery at this stage is almost impossible.
Without treatment of tertiary syphilis, the life of an infected person is halved and ends with a painful death.
Complications of tertiary syphilis
Approximately 25% of cases, against complications, are fatal.In the third stage, virtually all vital organs are destroyed.
Complications can lead to disability or appearance defects:
- Most often death terminates pneumosclerosis, bronchiectasis, aortic aneurysm and syphilitic aortritis.
- Perforation of the hard palate, dementia, ostitis, periostitis and saddle nose.These complications lead to disability.
- Severe psychoneurological disorders cause: late meningovascular syphilis, spinal cord and progressive paralysis.
- Saddle nose and scars after purulent ulcers - defects of a cosmetic nature.
- Syphilis during pregnancy can cause premature birth and miscarriage, death of the child or his disability.
It is worth remembering that tertiary syphilis is not a death sentence, therefore it is extremely important to diagnose the disease as early as possible and undergo complete treatment to improve the quality of life.
Radevich Igor Tadeushevich, a sexually-pathological andrologist of the 1st category