Nootropic drugs of the new generation
Jul 03, 2018
Currently, many people, especially those living in megacities, regularly experience mental stress.The poor ecological situation also has a negative impact on the organism of the inhabitants of large cities.Stress is far from harmless.Frequent overstrain of the nervous system eventually leads to its exhaustion, resulting in more or less pronounced nervous disorders and even mental illness.The impact of stress factors greatly increases the likelihood of cardiovascular pathologies.On "nervous soil" infarctions and strokes are often developed.
In a person subjected to regular stress, the ability to memorize decreases and cognitive activity worsens.He becomes more irritable and prone to depression.For many decades, experts have been trying to find ways to prevent and minimize the adverse effects of stress on the human body.Table of contents: What are nootropic drugs?The effect of taking nootropics The mechanism of action of nootropic drugs The classification of nootropic medications Indications for the use of nootropic drugs Nootropics in pediatrics Contraindications to the use of nootropic drugs Side effects The drugs that are now most widely used in clinical practice
What are nootropic drugs?We recommend to read:
Nootropics are medicines that improve the ability to remember, stimulate mental activity and make the human brain more resistant to such factors as oxygen starvation, the influence of toxic substances and even trauma.
Note: is the first effective nootropic - Piracetam was obtained over half a century ago.It was created by specialists-pharmacologists from Belgium.The drug was thoroughly tested in 1963.
The work on the creation of new drugs-nootropics is actively carried out today.Currently, there are a number of very effective tools that increase the functional activity of the brain.They help people cope with psychoemotional overstrain and stabilize the work of the nervous system.
The effect of taking nootropics
Nootropic effect is a positive effect on the higher functions of the cortex.
Other positive effects of modern nootropic drugs include:
- sedative( relaxing);
- is mnemotropic;
- is antiparkinsonic;
Note: anti-asthenic action is to reduce the feeling of general weakness and lethargy, as well as to minimize the manifestations of psychic asthenia.Mnemotropic effect implies an improvement in the ability to memorize and learnability in general.By vasovegetative action is understood as the stimulation of blood circulation in the so-called."A brain pool".Nootropic drugs are strong adaptogens that allow the body to adapt to the effects of various( mostly unfavorable) surrounding factors.
Nootropics of the latest generation can increase clarity of consciousness.Modern drugs of this class do not provoke psychomotor agitation.They do not cause drug dependence( addiction) and even with prolonged admission do not deplete the body's own resources.
Mechanism of action of nootropic drugs
Nootropes are able to activate the process of biosynthesis of ribonucleic acid and protein compounds in the CNS.They accelerate the energy processes in the processes of the cells of the nervous system and improve the transmission of nerve impulses.Preparations at the cellular level significantly reduce the formation of free radicals, that is, they have an antioxidant effect.They optimize the utilization of glucose and other polysaccharide compounds.Nootropic drugs are responsible for the formation of proteins and phospholipids in neurocytes, due to which the stabilization of their membranes occurs.Preparations of this group increase the concentration of adenylate cyclase in the cells of the nervous system, which normalizes the process of ATP, the basic energy base of cells.Adenosine triphosphoric acid in conditions of insufficient intake of oxygen stabilizes the metabolism in the brain.
Important: nootropic drugs increase the level of education and release of neurotransmitters - serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and acetylcholine.
Classification of nootropic drugs
Nootropics include the funds of several clinico-pharmacological groups.
- Nerve cell stimulants:
- Derivative GABA:
- Hopantenic acid.
- Derivatives of pyrrolidone:
Note: for pantothenic acid compounds is a common nootropic Pantogam, and on the basis of vitamin B6, pyrithinol is produced.
- For agents containing dimethylaminoethanol, include:
- Among drugs with peptides and amino acids - the following drugs:
- Nootropics that reduce the negative effect of oxygen deficiency include, in particular, oxymethylethylpyridine succinate.
- Vitamin-like preparations and nootropic adaptogenic agents include succinic acid, vitamins E and B15, folic acid and extract from ginseng root.
- Vinpotropin, Cinnarizine and Instenon are vasotropic, ie, positively affecting the cerebral blood vessels with drugs.
- To improve memory, tools with different mechanism of action are used:
- Anticholsteroids and cholinomimetics:
Indications for use of nootropic drugs
Drugs of this clinical and pharmacological group are prescribed for such diseases and pathological conditions:
- decreased mental and physical activity;
- impairment of cognitive abilities;
- problems with memory and concentration of attention;
- Neuroinfections( for example - encephalitis or poliomyelitis);
- effects on the brain of toxic substances;
- consequences of cerebral blood flow disorders;
- senile dementia;
- encephalopathy and abstinence against a background of regular abuse of alcoholic beverages;
- effects of CTB( brain damage);
- ischemic stroke;
Please note: nootropic drugs are used in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal pathology of the vascular genesis and open-angle glaucoma
Nootropics in pediatrics
Pediatricians can prescribe nootropics for children suffering from the following pathologies:
- speech development delay;
- deviations in general mental development;
- mental retardation of varying severity;
- CNS damage during birth( eg, with hypoxia).
Important: nootropic drugs are recommended for children who are diagnosed with attention deficit disorder.
Contraindications to the use of nootropic drugs
Nootropes are not assigned to patients when diagnosed:
- hypersensitivity to the active ingredient or intolerance of auxiliary ingredients;
- marked decrease in the functional activity of the kidneys( acute or chronic renal failure);
- hemorrhagic stroke( acute period);
- is more common in Goettington( hereditary degenerative CNS disease).
Important: Nootropic drugs are prescribed for pregnant and lactating women!
Side effects of
The vast majority of patients tolerate nootropic drugs well.
In some cases, the following side effects may develop:
- unmotivated sense of anxiety;
- disturbances of night sleep;
- drowsiness during the day;
- increased irritability;
- instability of blood pressure;
- dyspeptic disorders;
- is an allergy.
Note: in elderly and senile patients nootropic in rare cases can provoke an increase in the severity of clinical manifestations of coronary insufficiency.
Drugs that are now most widely used in clinical practice
- Piracetam( analogues - Nootropil and Lucetam) is produced in tablet form for administration of per os, as well as in solution for intravenous injections and intravenous infusions.The drug improves metabolism in the central nervous system and stimulates cerebral circulation.Pyracetam negatively affects the aggregation of platelets, so with the violation of blood clotting it is necessary to apply it with caution.
- Prairiatsetam, which is available in the form of tablets, is characterized by a high degree of affinity for choline.The drug increases cognitive ability and improves memory.It has no sedative effect.It is recommended for long term treatment;The effect fully develops in 1-2 months from the beginning of the reception.Caution should be given to patients suffering from kidney failure!
- Cavinton( analogues - Vinpocetine and Neurovin).The drug is produced by pharmaceutical companies both in the form of tablets and in the injection solution.It improves blood flow in the cerebral vessels.The drug is widely used in neurology, as well as in ophthalmic practice in the complex treatment of retinal pathologies.It is also effective for improving hearing acuity.It is recommended course treatment for 1-8 months, depending on the nosological form and dynamics.Abolish the drug should be, gradually reducing the dose for 4-5 days.In the acute period of the disease, parenteral administration of the solution is indicated;As the condition improves, the injection form is replaced with tablets.
- Phenibut( analogues - Noobut and Bifren) - is produced in the form of powder, capsules and tablets.The drug allows you to combat the deterioration of memory and oxygen starvation of nerve cells.It increases not only mental, but also physical working capacity, it helps to reduce nervous tension, get rid of feelings of anxiety and normalize sleep.Caution should be used to administer Phenibut in parallel with hypnotics and antipsychotics, as nootropic potentiates their effect.The drug is indicated with a decrease in intelligence and neurosis-like disorders.To travelers it is recommended as a remedy for seasickness and motion sickness.The course is shown for 1-1.5 months.
- Pantogam( Hopantenic acid).These tablets reduce motor excitability, which contributes to the prevention and therapy of hyperkinesia.The drug significantly improves performance after a month of taking.Duration of treatment - up to six months.
- Glycine, which is supplied to pharmacies in the form of sublingual tablets, stimulates metabolic processes and is characterized by a pronounced sedative effect.It helps with stress, reducing the feeling of irritability and anxiety.
- Cerebrolysin - has a positive effect in the therapy of serious organic lesions and neurodegenerative pathologies of the central nervous system, including even Alzheimer's.The drug is widely used in complex therapy of the consequences of head injuries and strokes.The drug is in the form of an injection solution.
- Encephabol - for adults is available in tablets, and for children - in the form of a suspension with a pleasant taste and smell.The drug is a powerful neuroprotective agent and antioxidant.The tool normalizes behavioral functions and improves cognitive abilities.
More detailed information on the operation of nootropics and indications for their use you will get by watching this video review:
Plisov Vladimir, medical reviewer