Umbilical hernia in adults - symptoms, treatment and consequences
Pathological protrusion of the abdominal cavity through the umbilical ring in medicine is classified as umbilical hernia.Such protrusion can significantly decrease in size or even disappear if the person is in a horizontal position.Most umbilical hernia is diagnosed in women.Table of Contents: Causes of umbilical hernia Symptoms of umbilical hernia Possible complications Treatment of umbilical hernia
Causes of umbilical hernia
This disease is acquired, provoked by the divergence of muscle fibers along the white line of the abdomen - this condition just can appear for various reasons.
According to statistics, the following factors can cause the umbilical hernia:
- chronic constipation;
- tumors of malignant and / or benign character in the abdominal cavity, characterized by rapid growth;
- excessive physical activity;
These conditions lead to a weakening of the muscular and ligamentous apparatus - keeping the abdominal organs in a normal position becomes almost impossible and they protrude through the umbilical ring.It is noteworthy that the size of the hernia can be completely different - from 1 to 20 cm and even more.
Note: in most cases, the umbilical ring in the disease under consideration widens by no more than 10 cm, everything else is considered an exception.If the hernia is small, then the omentum protrudes through the umbilical ring, if the hernia is of sufficiently large size, then the omentum and the loops of the intestine are protruded through the ring.
Some experts suggest that the umbilical hernia in adults has a genetic predisposition.However, such a theory has not been proved, so to take it seriously or not, the case is "purely voluntary."
Symptoms of umbilical hernia
Umbilical hernia can have intense and somewhat "lubricated" symptoms - it depends on some factors:
- whether there are spikes in the abdominal cavity;
- general health condition of the patient;
- sizes of umbilical hernia;
- is there an infringement of a hernial sac.
At the very beginning of the development of the examined disease, the patient generally does not experience any inconvenience, restraint or pain.The only thing that immediately draws attention to is a slight protrusion in the navel, but does not attach importance to this - protrusion does not disturb and disappears as soon as the patient takes a horizontal position, and pregnant ladies even take it for the peculiarity of their condition.
In some cases, the gland is so strongly protruded that it overcomes the umbilical ring.Such a hernia never changes in size, and the disease itself occurs without pronounced symptoms.
Note: if the omentum begins to pass through the dilated muscles, then the hernia strongly increases in size, characterized by severe manifestations.
If the disease in question is progressing, then spasms begin to form in the abdominal cavity - this prevents the hernial sac from being repositioned.In this case, any movement, tension, straining leads to a disorder in the functioning of the intestine.The patient begins to make complaints about chronic constipation and constantly present nausea, regardless of the time of eating.This condition is especially difficult for women during pregnancy and when there is obesity - a growing abdomen puts pressure on the muscles of the abdominal wall, which provokes a worsening of the patient's condition.
As long as this disease does not develop, it can lead to the development of the following complications:
- inflammation of the hernia;
- stasis of stool in the large intestine;
- infringement of the hernial sac.
Infringement of umbilical hernia occurs even with small physical exertion - for example, when coughing, after sneezing, laughing or against a background of chronic constipation. It is noteworthy that the type of complication in question always begins sharply, suddenly and is characterized by the following symptoms:
- in the navel area, the patient has acute, severe pain;
- hernial bag becomes hot and tense to the touch, it can not be fixed;
- rapidly develop nausea, vomiting, headache, fever - all signs of a general intoxication of the body.
Note: the appearance of signs of infringement of the hernial sac is the reason for immediate application for professional medical care.Usually, surgical treatment is performed in this condition, but only specialists can determine the specific methods and procedures.
Treatment of umbilical hernia
First of all, you need to understand what kind of doctor to turn to when you suspect an umbilical hernia.Such a specialist is a surgeon - he will conduct the necessary examinations and make an accurate diagnosis.But you will need more advice from a gastroenterologist and nutritionist - these specialists will help get rid of chronic constipation, excess weight.
The only method of effective treatment of umbilical hernia in medicine is surgical intervention.Yes, there is a lot of information on the therapeutic treatment of the disease in question - a hernia is corrected.But you need to understand that such measures in almost 100% of cases lead to the development of complications.
Before the doctor prescribes surgical treatment of the umbilical hernia, the patient will have to undergo a full examination - the treatment can be postponed in case of diagnosed heart failure, during pregnancy, against the background of worsened chronic diseases. If there are no disturbing factors, the specialist will offer the patient several methods of surgical treatment of the disease in question:
- Stretching hernioplasty.In this case, the plastic is performed by the method of Mayo and Sapezhko, only local tissues are involved.The surgeon sutures the umbilical ring in two layers in two directions( transverse and vertical).If the patient is diagnosed with obesity, then during the surgery, the specialist removes excess fatty tissue.
Disadvantages of tension hernioplasty - the rehabilitation period lasts for a long time, there is no guarantee that the recurrence of the umbilical hernia will not happen.
- Plastic reticular implants.The surgeon uses in his work "patches" - special materials that are characterized by inertness to the internal tissues of the human body.This mesh is placed above or below the umbilical ring, it can be used even in the treatment of large hernias.According to statistics, plastic mesh implants are characterized by a small recovery period and a low probability of relapse( within 1%).
Note: , these two methods of surgical treatment of umbilical hernia can be performed either with classical penetration into the abdominal cavity or with laparoscopy.As anesthesia, local anesthesia is used, but if surgery is performed in a classical manner, the patient is given a general anesthetic.
Recovery after surgery
Of course, much depends on the general condition of the patient, on how professionally the operation was performed. But as a rule, the recommendations of doctors in the recovery period are as follows:
- on the same day, almost immediately after surgery, the patient is allowed to get out of bed;
- it is necessary to wear a special bandage - it will lower pressure on the seam;
- on the second and subsequent days of physical activity should gradually increase;
- the duration of using a special bandage will be determined only by a doctor - without his permission to remove this device can not be;
- after 10-15 days the patient is allowed to make short jogs, to do the simplest exercises as part of charging;
- lifting of weights, any power loads to the patient are resolved only 30 days after surgery, even if a laparoscopic method of surgical treatment was used.
How to treat umbilical hernia in pregnant women
According to statistics, this pathology is most often diagnosed in women during pregnancy.But this does not mean that doctors will prescribe surgical treatment - stress and drugs that are used for anesthesia are unlikely to have a beneficial effect on the fetal development of the fetus. What to do for pregnant women with the diagnosis of umbilical hernia:
- constantly wear a special bandage - he will be appointed by a doctor, will pick up the size;
- is constantly observed by the surgeon - he will be able to establish the optimal time for the surgical treatment of the umbilical hernia;
- use compression or supporting underwear on the recommendation of an observant physician.
It is believed that the optimal time for surgical treatment of umbilical hernia will be 6-8 months after delivery.By the way, during the work the surgeon can eliminate defects of an abdominal wall which were formed in the period of bearing of the child( for example, extensions), superfluous fatty tissue.
Prevention of umbilical hernia
To prevent the development of the condition under consideration, it is necessary to observe clear preventive measures. These include:
- training of abdominal muscles - you can exercise every day on the press, which will lead to the build-up and strengthening of muscle mass;
- weight control - obesity is one of the causes of umbilical hernia, so you need to correct the nutrition and lifestyle in time when you find excess kilograms;
- refusal to lift weights and excessive physical exertion - of course, this does not apply to professional athletes;
- in the period of bearing a child wearing a special bandage must be mandatory.
It should be remembered that the umbilical hernia at the beginning of its development, when complications are not present, is easily and simply treated surgically.Modern medicine offers quite non-traumatic surgical interventions, which are characterized by a short rehabilitation period and the absence of any complications.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category