Furuncle: symptoms, treatment of furunculosis, possible complications
Furuncle( in the popular-use version - "chirey", "chirac", "abscess") is a local purulent-inflammatory process, which in most cases is caused by staphylococci.Development of it occurs in the sac of the hair follicle.In some cases, there are multiple foci, then there is a disease called furunculosis, which is part of the pyoderma.Contents: Why the hair follicle is involved in the purulent process Staphylococcus is the main cause of furunculosis
Why the hair follicle is involved in the purulent process
To understand the mechanism of the disease development, the structure of the hair, follicle and sebaceous gland should be briefly disassembled.Hair - it is a modified by the evolution, keratinized skin cells, consisting of a rod above the surface and the root, located in the follicular sac.The follicle is immersed in the skin and subcutaneous fat and is surrounded by a connective tissue capsule.The lower part of the hair follicle resembles a mace with an enlarged lower pole.This "bulb" provides nutrition and innervation of the hair.It flows into the ducts of the sebaceous and sweat glands.
Skin fat has the ability to disinfect pathological microorganisms, which are abundant on the skin.The activity of the sebaceous gland is regulated by the adrenal glands and the hormone of the sexual glands - testosterone.
The sweat glands are located in the armpits, around the nipple area, the anus and the genitals.
Staphylococcus is the main cause of furunculosis
As mentioned above, the main cause of purulent inflammation of the hair follicle is staphylococcus aureus.There are many varieties of this microorganism.Only about 10% of them carry a pathogenic origin.The malaise develops when these forms begin to multiply actively.
Factors leading to the development of boils
The development of purulent processes in the hair follicles is facilitated by:
- enhanced sweating with violation of the functions of skin protection;
- minor traumatic skin lesions in combs, scratches, abrasions, through which an infection gets under the skin and into the hair structure;
- contact of skin and pathological discharge in rhinitis, frontal and other inflammatory infectious diseases;
- hygienic problems, skin contamination;
- professional factors: contact with chemical, construction, household dust, liquid harmful ingredients;
- altered, or decreased immunity, arising on the background of severe chronic pathologies;
- is a hormonal dysfunction that develops in diabetes mellitus, an overabundance of adrenal function.Imbalance leads to trophic skin disorders, a decrease in local protective reactions, which creates a favorable environment for the development of pathogens.
Stages of development and forms of development of boils
The cycle of furuncle development consists of 3 phases:
- Stage of infiltration.The skin above the focus of infection and around becomes denser, reddens, swells.In this place there are painful sensations.In the center of the infiltrate, you can consider the hair follicle.A living term is "the maturation of boil".
- Stage of necrosis.It appears on the 3-4th day of development.A "rod" consisting of necrotic( dead) tissues and pus is formed around the hair with an inflamed follicle.A white convex abscess appears on the surface of the skin.The thin tissue membrane covering it is opened, and pus is rejected outside.The patient feels relief and reduces pain.Puffiness subsides, redness decreases.The term folk medicine, meaning the process - "breakthrough boil".
- The healing phase.The skin defect that resembles an ulcer formed after the rejection of the "rod" heals.After large furuncles, scar scars remain.
On average, the full cycle of development and healing of the boil is about 10 days.
Seats of the most frequent arrangement of boils:
- nose, cheeks, forehead, behind-the-ear area;
- skin of the back and side of the neck;
- forearm and elbows;
- thighs, buttocks, less often the knees and lower legs.
The face is the most frequent place of furuncle formation, since the skin on it is abundantly supplied with sebaceous glands, into which pathogenic organisms penetrate.Especially unpleasant are abscesses located on the nose, above the upper lip.Very painful chiri ear canal.
Furuncles located on the face
Signs of facial furunculosis:
- severe pain and characteristic infiltration;
- violation of mimic, chewing functions;
- fever with chills, general weakness;
- with the pressure on the boil, the occurrence of severe pain.
Important : self-extrusion of the furuncle on the face is fraught with the penetration of purulent contents into the vascular bed.
This can lead to venous inflammation and thrombosis.As a result, the face swells, turns blue, there is severe pain, the temperature rises sharply, the general condition becomes severe.In this case, you need to immediately seek medical help.Infection sometimes spreads to the brain tissue and causes encephalitis, or inflammation of the membranes - meningitis.
Rule of purulent surgery: "do not touch furuncles above the upper lip!"
Signs of the appearance of boils in other places
Boils can appear in the armpit.In this case, there is a hydradenitis - a purulent process of the sweat gland.Complaints accompanying this pathology are similar to those that arise in the usual furuncle.In addition, pain occurs during the movement of the shoulder joints.
In the groin area, the furuncle can complicate the lymph nodes and vessels, which is manifested by the appearance of painful hypodermic cords and cones( regional lymphadenitis and lymphangitis).
Women have specific furuncles of the labia majora, complicated by infection in the Bartholin glands.There is bartholinitis, accompanied by a strong swelling of the labia, soreness and marked redness.
The largest furuncles are formed on the skin of the buttocks and thighs.
When a significant number of boils occur, there is a disease - furunculosis.Most often, multiple boils are located on limited places on the surface of the skin.
In the prevalence it should be noted:
- localized furunculosis, in which infiltrates are in the same area;
- disseminated furunculosis.Painful foci are common in many parts of the body.
But sometimes the abscesses spread to different parts of the body.Furunculosis often recurs, in place and next to the old develop new chiri.
Therefore, the following phases of the disease are distinguished:
- acute form of furunculosis.With her on the skin at the same time there are a lot of furuncles, passing through all stages of development, ending with recovery;
- chronic form of furunculosis.It is characterized by the constant appearance of new foci that arise on already healed places.
Complications that furunculosis can give
The most common furunculosis is complicated by the following pathology:
- inflammatory process of regional lymph nodes( lymphadenitis);
- is an inflammation that occurs during the course of regional lymphatic vessels( lymphangitis);
- by septic process( contamination of blood);
- inflammatory changes in the membranes and tissues of the brain( meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis);
- with inflammation of the joints( arthritis);
- pathology of the kidneys( glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis).
Treatment of a furuncle
Boils appear in almost all people.Doctors are treated only in severe cases or when complications arise.It is very common home treatment and use of traditional medicine.Often the question: "than to treat boils," people solve, far from medicine.
Conservative methods of treatment of boils
Measures to assist in case of presence of boils at the 1st stage of infiltration include:
- overlay on the developing abscess bandage with antiseptic solution.For this purpose, medical alcohol is best suited;
- moxibustion of the boil with iodine solution;
- application to the infiltration of dry heat;
- heating with infrared rays, UHF, laser therapy.
Important: for the treatment of a boil is contraindicated with a warming compress, which helps spread the purulent process to surrounding tissues.Do not put pressure on the painful area, this can lead to the spread of the process.
In more severe cases, an antibiotic-novocain blockade of the furuncle area is performed.
With the existing abscess, it is necessary to create conditions for its "opening" sooner.
In the stage of necrosis( formed rod) for the treatment of boils,
- is used to dress with salicylic acid, which melts the "cover" of the boil and gives a free exit to the purulent contents;
- careful stem removal by special clamp;
- , after purging the purulent cavity, a rubber drainage for 3 days will be placed in it, which is then removed, and the healing surface is treated with a green solution.
Locally indicated ointments:
Tested agents are Ichthyol and Vishnevsky ointment.
Surgical care for the treatment of a boil
Surgical intervention is indicated when purulent infiltration is spreading into the subcutaneous tissue with the formation of a bulk abscess.In this case, surgical opening of the focus and sanitation( cleaning of the abscess cavity) is necessary.Intervention is conducted in the operating theater.
Antibiotics for furuncles are selected only by a doctor, depending on the sensitivity of the staphylococcal infection to them, and also taking into account the patient's tolerance.Also, antimicrobial drugs are applied topically with prolonged healing process.
The treatment for a furuncle in a child is carried out in the same way as in an adult.
Measures for treatment of furunculosis
Self-intervention in the case of available furunculosis is not successful.Long-term out-patient treatment with repeated preventive courses is necessary.
Local methods of action on furuncles are used, which are identical to cases of single foci.The main attention is paid to stimulation of immunity and general measures of influence on pathological foci.
For these purposes, the following applies:
- Ultraviolet irradiation;
- laser therapy;
- immunostimulation( T-activin);
- treatment with immunoglobulins, interferon, rhinoleukin;
Antibiotics in the treatment of furunculosis are prescribed only after determining the sensitivity of the isolated pathogen to them.The reaction of the patient is also taken into account.
Important: boil alone revealed what to do?In this case, it is necessary to thoroughly wash your hands, rinse the necrotic masses with a solution of furacilin and gauze swabs, then rinse the cavity several times with hydrogen peroxide.If necessary, seek medical help.
Treatment of furunculosis at home with traditional medicine
Important: before self-help treatment should consult with your doctor.
Among the simple methods that do not require a significant investment of funds should be allocated :
- coniferous baths.For their preparation, you need to buy in the pharmacy essential oil of pine or fir.In warm water, 20-25 drops are added, it should be immersed in it every day for 20 minutes;
- leaves aloe, which are cut along and applied by flesh to the abscess.Fixation should be done with a "breathable" bandage of gauze and adhesive plaster.Change dressings should be once a day;
- homemade ointment of 100 gr.Wax, 0,5 l of vegetable oil, sulfur of coniferous trees.In the hot oil add wax and sulfur, after half an hour 100 gr.Onion peel.Blend the mixture over low heat for 1 hour, then pour into small jars for convenience.Frozen ointment to lubricate the appearance of boils.
For more details on the treatment of furunculosis at home, see this video:
Gudenko Ivan Valentinovich, Surgeon