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Drugs for reducing blood sugar( insulins): particular application

Insuliny Just think, a century ago the diagnosis of "diabetes mellitus" sounded like a verdict.But thanks to scientists in 1920 was first isolated insulin from the cells of the pancreas of animals, which soon began to be used in the treatment of people with diabetes.This drug has reduced the likelihood of complications of the disease and increase life expectancy.

Table of contents: Insulin types Insulins of different duration of action Insulins of ultrashort action

Kinds of insulin

Without insulin, treatment of type 1 diabetes is not possible.It is a disease in which the synthesis of its own insulin ceases and to maintain the functioning of the body it is necessary to inject insulin preparations from the outside.In addition, insulin can be prescribed for type 2 diabetes.

By origin, insulins are distinguished:

  • Animal origin( pig, bovine);
  • Human( recombinant);
  • Analog of human insulin.

Diabet insulin

An animal of animal origin is extracted from the pancreas cells of animals, but it has an amino acid composition.Now insulin of animal origin is practically not used.

Human insulin is produced in two ways.Recombinant insulin is obtained by genetic engineering.To do this, insulin DNA is introduced into the DNA of weakened non-pathogenic strains of E. coli bacteria or yeast cells.As a result, cells begin to produce insulin, similar to human.

Analogues of human insulin are not ordinary hormones.Analogues are obtained by modifying the insulin molecule.Such changes can reduce the number of injections administered and more effectively control the ailment.

Now the pharmaceutical companies continue to actively work on improving the drug, doing everything to ensure that carrying out insulin therapy was most effective and convenient for a person.

Insulin of different duration of action

The pancreas constantly secretes insulin in a certain amount, this allows maintaining a stable background( basal) level of the hormone.Eating requires a lot of insulin.Therefore, during a meal, a healthy pancreas produces an additional portion of insulin, these are peak hormone elevations.

The essence of the treatment of type 1 diabetes is to simulate the normal production of insulin by the body, for this use insulin preparations of different duration of action.

Depending on the duration of the effect, insulins are distinguished:

  • Ultra-short;
  • Short-acting;
  • Average duration of action;
  • Long-acting.

In the treatment of type 1 diabetes, the basic-bolus principle is followed.That is, with the help of long-acting insulin injections, a constant( baseline) level of insulin is provided.They are administered once or twice a day: at night and sometimes in the morning.Before meals, you need to inject insulin preparations of short and ultra-short action, this provides the necessary peak rises in insulin levels.

What kind of insulin is the best

Short-acting insulins These drugs begin to exert their effects fairly quickly: an average of 10 to 30 minutes after the injection.Therefore, they are administered ten minutes before or even during meals.Their peak is reached in 40-90 minutes, and the duration of their action is three to five hours.

List and comparison of ultrashort insulin

insulin Title

Valid medicament

peak concentration

duration of action

Humalog( insulin lispro)

After 15-30 min

After 30-90 min

over 3-5 hours

Novorapid( insulin aspart)

After 10-20 min

After 40-50 min

throughout3-5 hours

Apadra( insulin glyulizin)

After 20-30 min

After 55-60 min

Throughout 1-2.5 hours

short-acting insulin

This insulin must be administered half an hour before meals.It is during this time that the injected drug begins to exert its effect.The peak of their concentration of short insulin is reached in two to four hours.The duration of the action is from two to eight hours.

list and comparing short insulins

insulin Title

Valid medicament

peak concentration

duration of action

Humulin R( novolin)

After 0.5-1 hours

After 2-5 hours

over 5-8 hours

Actrapid HM

After half an hour

After 2.5-5 hours

During 8 hours

Insuman Rapid

After half an hour

After 1-2 hours

Over 5-8 hours

insulin

average duration of drug action with a duration of action that provides the body insulin overnight or half of the day.The onset of action is one to two hours after the injection.Peaks of their concentration, they reach an average of 3-11 hours.The duration of exposure is 18-24 hours.

list and comparison of mean insulin

insulin name

Valid drug

peak concentration

duration of action

Isophane insulin HM

Through1-2 hours

After 6-12 hours

over 18-24 hours

Humulin Lente

After 1-2.5 hours

After 3-18 hours

Over 18-24 hours

Insulin

long-acting insulin preparations this kind provides hormone needs to stretch as much as a day.Usually they are administered at night, sometimes even in the morning.The effect of long-acting insulin appears on average after one to two hours.The duration of exposure is 20-25 hours.

list and comparison of long insulins

insulin Title

Valid medicament

peak concentration

duration of action

Ultralente

After 0.5-3 hours

After 10-12 hours

over 20-36 hours

Lantus( glargine)

After 1-1.5 hours

peak concentration reaches

over 2024 hours

Levemir( detemir)

After 1-2 hours

After 6-8 hours

Less than 24 hours

addition, pharmaceutical companies produce a combined insulin.It is a mixture of medium and short insulin in a fixed proportion.

application features

insulin formulations may be administered in several ways: subcutaneous, intramuscular, and even intravenous injection.The preferred route of administration is subcutaneous.Intravenously, a short insulin can be administered to relieve acute conditions.Long-acting insulins are never injected intravenously.

person with diabetes may self-administer subcutaneous insulin preparations.To do this, the needle is injected under the skin of the floor with an angle of 45 degrees, after which the medication is slowly poured.Doctors do not recommend to immediately pull the needle after administration of the drug, it is better to wait five seconds, so that the medication is not stemmed.In addition, do not massage the injection site, because it will increase blood flow in the tissues and, accordingly, accelerate the absorption of insulin.

Places of introduction of insulin

After the introduction of insulin, an ultrashort or short action, you must eat.The passage of food after a given dose of insulin can provoke hypoglycemia.

degree of digestibility insulin depends on the body portion to which it will be administered subcutaneously.The most active insulin absorbed when administered in the abdomen and shoulder, less active - when injected into the thigh.In addition, an injection in the scarring areas of the skin slows the penetration of the drug into the blood.Before the introduction, you need to make sure that the drug is not cold.It should be comfortable at room temperature, because the cold substance is absorbed more slowly.

Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer


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