Tranquilizers: popular drugs, application features
Jul 05, 2018
The name of the drug group tranquilizers from the Latin language is translated as "calming."Indeed, these drugs can soothe a person and eliminate symptoms such as anxiety, fear.That is why tranquilizers are prescribed for disorders of the neurotic spectrum.Table of contents: Pharmacological groups of tranquilizers Indications for use Features of tranquilizers application Side effects, contra-indications Popular tranquilizers
Pharmacological groups of tranquilizers
Tranquilizers( synonym for anxiolytics) have existed for more than sixty years.The first representatives of this group are Meprobamate, Chlordiazepoxide and Diazepam.Now the group of tranquilizers has about one hundred drugs.
Tranquilizing properties are different in chemical structure of the drug. Depending on the origin, the following groups of tranquilizers are distinguished:
- Benzodiazepine derivatives( diazepam, phenazepam, oxazepam, chlordiazepoxide);
- Derivatives of diphenylmethane( Hydroxysin( Atarax), Benaktizin);
- Carbamates( meprobamate);
- Miscellaneous( Trioxazine, Adaptol, Afobazol).
The most commonly used group of tranquilizers is benzodiazepines.They have the most pronounced tranquilizing effect.However, the incorrect use of benzodiazepines can lead to the formation of addiction and dependence.Modern medications such as Atarax, Afobazol do not have such side effects, but they have a less pronounced tranquilizing effect.
Indications for use of tranquilizers
How do tranquilizers work?Preparations of different groups have a different mechanism of action.Thus, benzodiazepines activate GABA receptors through specific benzodiazepine receptors located in the central nervous system.This leads to an increased receptivity of receptors to GABA, a neurotransmitter that exerts a inhibitory effect on the nervous system.This pharmacological effect leads to the fact that a person calms down, relaxes.
Tranquilizers reduce the excitability of the subcortical structures of the central nervous system responsible for the emotional reaction of a person, and also slow the interaction between these structures and the cortex of the brain.
Tranquilizers have several pharmacological effects:
- Tranquilizing( anxiolytic) - manifests itself in the form of elimination of anxiety, fear, anxiety, internal tension.
- Sedative - is expressed in the reduction of psychomotor agitation, decrease in concentration of attention, speed of mental, motor reactions.
- Muscle relaxant - manifested by the elimination of muscle tension.
- Anticonvulsant - is expressed in a decrease in convulsive activity.
- Hypnotic - is expressed in accelerating the onset of sleep, improving its qualities.
These effects in various drugs are expressed in varying degrees, which should be considered when choosing a medicine.So, for example, the sedative effect is very pronounced in Diazepam, Phenazepam and is poorly expressed in Mezapam.And the anticonvulsant effect is most pronounced in Diazepam, Clonazepam.
Some tranquilizers have vegetative stabilizing effect, that is, they normalize the activity of the autonomic nervous system.This is manifested by a decrease in blood pressure, palpitations, elimination of excessive sweating pr
Note! Tranquilizers have a potentiating effect.Their use increases the effect of sleeping pills, analgesics, anesthesia.This is why tranquilizers are often administered to patients before surgery.
Tranquilizers practically do not eliminate psychotic disturbances( hallucinations, delirium), therefore they are not used in therapy of endogenous mental illnesses: schizophrenia, BAP.The exception is the metal psychosis, which is successfully stopped by tranquilizers.
Thus, indications for the use of anxiolytics are:
- Neuroses( accompanied by anxiety, fear, insomnia, motor anxiety);
- Anxiety Disorders;
- Panic disorder;
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder;
- Abstinence syndrome with alcoholism, metal psychosis;
- Hyperkinesis, tics, epilepsy;
- Premedication( preparation for surgical intervention).
It is worth noting that the spectrum of use of anxiolytics has long gone beyond the treatment of mental illnesses.So, these drugs are prescribed for psychosomatic diseases: arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, peptic ulcer, as well as dermatological diseases accompanied by itching.
The decision on the need for tranquilizers is taken only by a doctor.The use of this group of drugs requires special conditions. First of all, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the use of most tranquilizers, especially benzodiazepines, can lead to addiction. To avoid this, the dose of the tranquilizer is increased gradually, reaching the optimum.The duration of application should not exceed two to three weeks.At the end of the course of treatment, the dose of the drug is gradually reduced.If a long-term treatment is necessary, the tranquilizer is prescribed by courses with interruptions between them.
Please note! Modern anxiolytics of non-benzodiazepine origin are not addictive, so they can be used longer.The duration of treatment is determined by the doctor.
Tranquilizers, as already mentioned, have a sedating effect on a person, which can be manifested in a worsening concentration of attention.Therefore, when treating tranquilizers, do not drive.The least expressed sedative effect of the "day" tranquilizers - Gidazepam, Trimetozin, Mebikara, Ataraks.
Important! The combined use of anxiolytics and alcohol is contraindicated, as this leads to marked inhibition of the nervous system.
Side effects, contraindications
Possible side effects in the treatment of tranquilizers are mainly related to the inhibition of the nervous system.This manifests itself in the form of daytime drowsiness, lethargy, a sense of "breaking", dulling of emotional reactions, dizziness, headache.It is also possible the appearance of such side effects as muscle weakness, arterial hypotension, dry mouth, dyspepsia, potency disorders.
The use of benzodiazepine tranquilizers can lead to the formation of addiction, drug dependence, manifested in the form of withdrawal syndrome.This syndrome is manifested after the abrupt withdrawal of medication in the form of insomnia, fear, irritability, tremor, seizures, nausea, and sometimes even depersonalization, hallucinations.The risk of drug dependence increases with prolonged therapy with tranquilizers.
Contraindications to the appointment of tranquilizers:
- Pregnancy, lactation period;
- Myasthenia gravis;
- Hepatic failure;
- Respiratory failure;
- Alcohol, drug dependence( with the exception of withdrawal of withdrawal symptoms);
- Depression( for benzodiazepine tranquilizers).
Benzodiazepine tranquilizers are not prescribed for persons under the age of eighteen.Only in cases of extreme necessity can their appointment in this age group be justified.
Important! Benzodiazepine tranquilizers are prescription medications that are dispensed in a pharmacy at the doctor's prescription.Anxiolytics of a different origin are sold without a prescription, so they are more popular among patients. But once again emphasize the , that self-medication with psychotropic drugs is unacceptable.
One of the oldest tranquilizers, belongs to the group of benzodiazepines.Also known under such names as "Sibazon", "Relanium", "Seduxen", "Valium".Produced in the form of tablets and solution for injection.The sedative effect appears a few minutes after intravenous and half an hour after intramuscular injection.
The medicine effectively eliminates anxiety, fear, normalizes night sleep.Therefore, diazepam is prescribed for neuroses, panic and obsessive-compulsive disorders, with Tourette's syndrome, as well as for relief of the abstinence syndrome.
In addition, diazepam has pronounced anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects.Therefore, it is often prescribed to eliminate convulsive seizures.Diazepam is used for premedication before endoscopy and surgeries.
Refers to the benzodiazepine group, but unlike other members of this group has an activating effect, and hypnotic and miorelaxing effects are poorly expressed.
Gidazepam is referred to as "daytime" tranquilizers.Its anxiolytic effect is manifested by a decrease in the sense of anxiety, fear and anxiety.The drug is prescribed for the treatment of neuroses, psychopathies, autonomic lability, logoneurosis( stammering), migraine, alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
The active substance is hydroxysine, a derivative of piperazine.Atarax is a non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic, belongs to the group of H1-histaminoblockers.The drug is classified as a "soft" tranquilizer, it has a moderate anxiolytic effect.Produced in the form of tablets, the sedative effect develops after fifteen to thirty minutes.
The main indications for its use are anxiety, increased excitability, dermatological diseases accompanied by itching, alcohol withdrawal syndrome.In addition to sedative and anxiolytic, it also has an antiemetic effect. Unlike benzodiazepines, Atarax is not addictive and addictive to .
Non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic, available in the form of tablets.The active substance is fabomotisol.Has moderate anxiolytic and activating actions.
Indications for use: neurasthenia, anxiety disorder, withdrawal syndrome, adaptation disorders, VSD, psychosomatic diseases.A noticeable effect develops on the fifth to seventh days of treatment, and the maximum effect after four weeks.
The effect of the drug is very mild and less pronounced than that of benzodiazepines. However, the advantage of Afobazol is that its use does not lead to addiction and dependence.
Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer