How to treat bronchitis at home: medications for bronchitis
Jul 08, 2018
Bronchitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the bronchial tree of the respiratory system at different levels.When the trachea and large bronchi are inflamed, a debilitating dry cough comes to the fore, which becomes more moist over time.If the pathological process affects small bronchi, the prevalence of bronchospasm - cough acquires a paroxysmal character, and choking is not ruled out.
Bronchitis is a frequent complication of colds, as well as ARVI( including influenza).The pathology of the respiratory organs provokes a pathogenic microflora of both a bacterial and a viral nature.Table of contents: Antiviral drugs for bronchitis Antibiotics for bronchitis Anti-inflammatory drugs used for bronchitis Means against cough Mucolytics prescribed for bronchitis Mucoregulators used for bronchitis Bronchodilators used for bronchitis
When prescribing a medication, the natureAnd features of the development of the disease.It is necessary to take into account the severity of clinical manifestations and the dynamics of the process.Each of the drugs has its own indications and contraindications.
Groups of pharmacological agents that can be prescribed for bronchitis:
- is an anti-inflammatory;
- flour regulators;
- combined means;
Antiviral medications for bronchitis
Medicinal preparations of this category are generally meaningful only for the first 2-3 days after the onset of the first symptoms, and only if there is reason to suspect the viral nature of the disease. Against bacteria, these drugs are absolutely ineffective.The effect of most antiviral drugs is aimed at stimulating one's own immunity by stimulating the production of interferons.These drugs are likely to prevent the development of inflammation of the bronchi, than to cure the already developed bronchitis.
Tamiflu is considered to be one of the most effective antiviral agents. Its active ingredient is oseltamivir.Transforming in the body, it has a direct effect on viruses, blocking their reproduction .Tamiflu is prescribed for 1 capsule, and the frequency of reception is 2 times a day.Treatment is recommended to continue for 5 to 7 days.This remedy can be taken even by children, as well as pregnant and lactating women, but only by the prescription of the attending physician, and observing some caution.Tamiflu is contraindicated in cases of severe functional liver and( or) kidney failure.
Side effects of this drug include weakness, dizziness, dyspeptic disorders( nausea and vomiting), nasal congestion and sleep disturbances.
Antibiotics for bronchitis
With prolonged flow of bronchitis, it is often asked about the onset of antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic drugs should not be taken with the first symptoms.Self-medication is unacceptable;All drugs must be taken only for the purpose of the therapist .You can not also interrupt the course treatment, even if the condition has improved noticeably;This leads to the emergence of strains of bacteria resistant to drugs.
Groups of antibiotics effective for bronchitis:
- penicillins( inhibitor-protected);
- some fluoroquinolones.
The most commonly used for acute and chronic bronchitis is the Amoxiclav, belonging to penicillin series .It includes amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.This drug is able to affect a wide range of pathogenic microflora, including bacteria producing penicillinase, that is, it refers to inhibitor-protected.
Note: To this group of drugs belong Flemoklav Solutab, Panklav, IBL, Augmentin and Trimafoks.
The amoksiklav is produced in encapsulated and soluble form.Among the undesirable effects associated with its administration include stool disorders( diarrhea), nausea, dizziness and skin rashes like urticaria.Pregnant and persons suffering from renal and hepatic insufficiency, this antibiotic is prescribed with caution.Categorical contraindications to the beginning of admission are hypersensitivity to penicillin drugs, lymphocytic leukemia and infectious mononucleosis.In the form of powders Amoxiclav according to the indications is appointed from the first months of life, and in capsules - only from the age of 12.
Azithromycin belongs to the macrolide group.It is prescribed for bronchitis in the event that the penicillins are contraindicated in the patient .Undoubted advantage of this remedy is the possibility of taking 1 time per day and a short duration of course treatment( usually not more than 3 days).Azithromycin has virtually no side effects;It is well tolerated by the vast majority of patients.In rare cases, nausea and diarrhea may occur.The only categorical contraindication to the appointment of this macrolide is individual intolerance.During pregnancy and breastfeeding, the drug is administered with caution.In the form of a powder for dissolution, Azithromycin can be given even to young children.
Note: other trade names of Azithromycin are Hemomycin, Azitral, Sumamed and Asitrus.Among the macrolides, effective in inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, include Rulid, Erythromycin, Clacid and Macropen.The choice of the optimal medication is the prerogative of the attending physician.
Pansef( active substance - cefixime) belongs to the third generation cephalosporin antibiotics . It is the drug of choice for bronchitis. For women, during pregnancy and lactation, as well as for older people and children, prescribe medication with caution.It is categorically contraindicated to persons with hypersensitivity to cephalosporins and antibiotics of the penicillin series.Possible side effects of Panzef include dyspeptic disorders, pain in the abdominal region, oppression of hematopoiesis and the development of renal failure.Against the background of taking this cephalosporin, it is possible to develop a dysbacteriosis with active reproduction of a fungal microflora, ie, candidiasis is not excluded.
Please note: Panzef is available in the form of soluble granules, and its analogue - Ixim Lupine - in the form of a powder, which makes it possible to more accurately calculate the dosage for prescribing to children.
Levofloxacin belongs to the fluoroquinolone series.Indication for its purpose is a severe course of acute bronchitis and exacerbation of chronic .The drug is also prescribed for the development of such a serious complication as pneumonia.The duration of the course therapy depends on the severity of the symptoms and the dynamics of the process.
Most patients tolerate this fluoroquinolone well.In some cases, levofloxacin is capable of provoking headache, weakness, skin reactions( itching and flushing), nausea and diarrhea .Patients younger than 18 years of age, this antibiotic is not prescribed, since the drug is able to negatively affect the cartilaginous tissue of .Contraindications include individual intolerance, kidney failure, epilepsy, tendon diseases and the period of pregnancy and lactation.
Please note: commercial names are Levofloxacin - Haileflox, Levoflox and Tavanik.
Fluoroquinolones, which help with bronchitis, include Tsiprolet( 200 and 500), Ciprobai, Tarivid, Avelox and Abaktal.
Anti-inflammatory drugs used in bronchitis
For symptomatic therapy in bronchitis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with analgesic and antipyretic properties can be used.In particular, the temperature helps to knock down Paracetamol, Ibuprofen and Acetylsalicylic Acid( Aspirin).
Drugs have been developed that can selectively inhibit the inflammatory response in the respiratory system, reducing the severity of bronchospasm.Such substances include Fenspiride, it is part of such effective for bronchitis funds, as Epistat, Erispirus, Sirep, Erespal and Eladon .These drugs are produced in tablet form and in the form of syrups( syrups are recommended for children under 2 years old).
Indications for their appointment are not only any bronchitis, but also inflammation of the middle ear and paranasal sinuses and bronchial asthma.Fenspiride can be taken in parallel with any antibiotic.
In the vast majority of patients, it does not cause side effects.In rare cases, intestinal disorders( diarrhea) and abdominal pain are possible.This anti-inflammatory drug is not recommended during pregnancy, as information about complete safety for the fetus has not yet been received.
Means against cough
At the onset of the disease, patients develop a severe dry cough. If sputum does not go away at all, then it is recommended to take codeine supplements to suppress seizures.They are released in pharmacies only on prescriptions, because they belong to the category of potent.One of the most effective cough suppressants is Terpincode.
Without prescription, patients can purchase, for example, Libexin( its active substance is prenoxdiazine). The agent has a local anesthetic effect, i.e., reduces the sensitivity of the bronchi.There are no age-related contraindications for taking Libexin;With caution it can be administered including pregnant and lactating.The drug should not be prescribed if the cough is productive, since in this case the sputum will be difficult to get out.Possible side effects include short-term numbness of the tongue and rashes on the skin( in rare cases).
Important: is not used in conjunction with expectorants and mucolytics, prenoxdiazine is not used, but carbocysteine, which exerts a mucolytic( phlegmatic) effect, is included in the composition of Libexin muco.
Mucolytics in bronchitis
Mucolytic drugs contribute to a change in the consistency of sputum( liquefaction) and increases the amount of secretion, so that it is easier to excrete from the bronchi during a cough.
Acetylcysteine is prescribed for all forms of bronchitis.It is undesirable to give it to children who have not reached the age of 3, because it is difficult for them to cough normally .It is desirable to take the drug 2 hours after antibiotics.In pharmacies, you can buy special dosage forms for inhalation.The rarely occurring side effects of Acetylcysteine include skin rashes and nosebleeds.When inhaled through the nebulizer, short-term reflex enhancement of the bronchospasm is not excluded.Contraindications for use are pulmonary hemorrhage( including hemoptysis) and gastric ulcer in the stage of exacerbation.
Note: Acetylcysteine is included in the medicines Fluimucil, ACC, and Wix Active.
Carbocysteine also has pronounced mucolytic properties.The drug is not prescribed for chronic glomerulonephritis in the acute stage and in early pregnancy( in the first trimester).
Note: Carbocisthene is an active ingredient in Fluditek, Bronhobos and Fluviert.
Mucoregulators used in bronchitis
Means belonging to the clinical and pharmacological group of mucoregulators are necessary for dilution of viscous sputum and improvement of bronchial secretion.They are shown, mainly, in chronic forms of bronchitis and bronchoobstructive syndrome in children.
The most effective mucoregulator is Bromhexine.It can be given to children of an early age. The only contraindication is individual intolerance.Among the possible undesirable actions include increased cough, the appearance of rashes on the skin and headaches of moderate intensity.
Note: is the most common trade name for the drug - Bromgexin Berlin Hemi, Solvin and Bronchostop.Active substance is also in the complex preparations of Ascoril, Cofisma and Bronchosan.
Ambroxol not only dilutes the secret of the bronchial tree, but also stimulates the work of epithelial cilia of the respiratory tract, responsible for excretion of sputum from the bronchi into the trachea .There are no age limits for the purpose of this mucoregulator.
It is not recommended to take it during the first trimester of pregnancy, as well as with convulsive syndrome and exacerbation of peptic ulcer.Side effects develop extremely rarely( weakness, nausea and diarrhea are possible).For the child, the optimal dose can be selected only by the district pediatrician( taking into account the body weight and age of the small patient).
Note: Ambroxol is found in medicines such as Lazolvan, Ambrobene, Flavomed, Ambroghexal, Koldakt Broncho and Ambrosan.
Among the complex remedies for bronchitis containing Ambroxol are Kodelak Broncho and Bronhosan.
Bronchodilators used for bronchitis
Bronchodilators are primarily needed to combat bronchospasm.They contribute to the expansion of small branches of the bronchial tree.
Salbutamol is prescribed for both acute and chronic bronchitis .It is not prescribed if there is a pathology of pregnancy.The agent is a part of aerosols and solutions for inhalation and is manufactured in tablet form.
Note: Salbutamol is found in such drugs as Salgim, Ventolin, Astalin and Berodual.In the composition of Berodual there is another bronchodilator - ipratropium bromide.
Plisov Vladimir, medical reviewer